Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition


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For Viola

Ballard (in prep.)

Ballard, de Paula-Souza, & Wahlert in Kubitzki (2014). Key adapted, in part, from Ballard (1992) and Ballard & Wujek (1994)

Ballard, H.E., Jr. 1992. Systematics of the Viola Section Viola in North America north of Mexico. M.S. thesis, Central Mich. Univ., Mount Pleasant.

Ballard, H.E., Jr. 1994. Violets of Michigan. The Michigan Botanist 33: 131-199.

Ballard, H.E., Jr., and D.E. Wujek. 1994. Evidence for the recognition of Viola appalachiensis Systematic Bot. 19: 523-538.

Ballard, H.E., Jr., K.J. Sytsma, and R.R. Kowal. 1999. Shrinking the violets: phylogenetic relationships of infrageneric groups in Viola (Violaceae) based on internal transcribed spacer DNA sequences. Systematic Botany 23: 439-458.

Gil-ad, N.L. 1997. Systematics of Viola subsection Boreali-Americanae. Boissiera 53: 1-130.

Gil-ad, N.L. 1998. The micromorphologies of seed coats and petal trichomes of the taxa of Viola subsect. Boreali-Americanae (Violaceae) and their utility in discerning orthospecies from hybrids. Brittonia 50: 91-121.

Haines (2001)

Little, R.J., and L.E. McKinney. 2015b. Viola. In Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2015. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 6, Magnoliophyta: Cucurbitaceae to Droseraceae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, NY. 468 pp.

McKinney, L.E. 1992. A taxonomic revision of the acaulescent blue violets (Viola) of North America. Sida Bot. Misc. 7: 1-60.

McKinney, L.E., and N.H. Russell. 2002. Violaceae of the southeastern United States. Castanea 67: 369-379.

Russell, N.H. 1955. The taxonomy of the North American acaulescent white violets. Amer. Midl. Nat. 54: 481-494.

Russell, N.H. 1965. Violets (Viola) of central and eastern United States: an introductory survey. Sida 2: 1-113.