Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition


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Viola rafinesquei Greene. Section: Melanium. Subsection: Cleistogamae. Wild Pansy, Field Pansy, Johnny-jump-ip. Phen: Mar-May (chasmogamous), May-Jul (cleistogamous). Hab: Pastures, roadsides, lawns, other disturbed habitats, less commonly in dry rocky woodlands and barrens. Dist: MA and NY west to SD and CO, south to Panhandle FL, TX, and AZ.

ID notes: Winter annual plants flower chasmogamously first, and then progressively reduce petal size until later flowers are all chasmogamous (with 0 petals and 1 stamen).

Origin/Endemic status: Native

Syn: = Ballard () (in prep); = Viola bicolor – Ar, FNA6, K1, K3, K4, Mo3, NcTx, Pa, Tn, Va, WH3, McKinney & Russell (2002), later homonym; = Viola kitaibeliana var. rafinesquii – F; = Viola rafinesquii – C, G, GrPl, Il, RAB, S, Tx, W, WV, unacceptable orthographic variant

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image of plant© Alan M. Cressler
image of plant© Gary P. Fleming
image of plant© Richard & Teresa Ware