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Viola rostrata Pursh. Section: Viola. Subsection: Rostratae. Long-spurred Violet. Phen: Chasmogamous flower Apr-Jun (Jul) chasmogamous fruit Apr-Jun; cleistogamous fruit Jul-Aug. Hab: Acidic cove forests, other mesic forests, often under Tsuga canadensis, but also in calcareous forests (as in n. AL). Dist: NH and QC west to WI, south to GA and AL.

ID notes: In chasmogamous flower this caulescent species is unmistakable in its very elongate spur, glabrous petals, and pale violet corolla with dense coalescing nectar-guide lines forming a conspicuously contrasting dark eyespot around the throat. In cleistogamous fruit it is most often confused with species commonly growing with it: V. canadensis, V. eriocarpa, V. labradorica, and V. striata. It differs from V. canadensis in its wholly herbaceous weakly lacerate stipules, and leaf blades with remotely serrate-crenate margins; from V. eriocarpa in its glabrous foliage or leaf blades with sparse small hairs, and wholly herbaceous weakly lacerate stipules; and from V. labradorica and V. striata in its proportionally longer leaf blades with a more prolonged abruptly acute to acuminate apex and remote serrate-crenate margins, and proportionally longer stipules.

Origin/Endemic status: Native

Synonymy: = F, FNA6, G, K1, K3, K4, NE, Pa, RAB, S, S13, Tn, Va, W, WV, Ballard () (in prep), Ballard, Kartesz, & Nishino (2023), Haines (2001), McKinney & Russell (2002)

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Wetland Indicator Status:

  • Eastern Mountains and Piedmont: FACU
  • Midwest: FACU
  • Northcentral & Northeast: FACU

Heliophily ?: 3

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image of plant© Jim Fowler | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Armin Weise CC-BY | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Gary P. Fleming | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Erik Danielson source | Original Image ⭷

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