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Tilia americana Linnaeus var. heterophylla (Ventenat) Loudon. Section: Tilia. Subsection: Lindnera. Mountain Basswood, White Basswood, Linn. Phen: May-Jul; Jul-Aug. Hab: Rich coves and mesic to dry slopes (the drier sites usually on limestone), often one of the most abundant trees in Southern Appalachian cove forests. Dist: Centered in the Southern Appalachians: sw. PA and WV south to c. NC, wc. GA, FL Panhandle, and westward as disjunct populations to the Ozarkian Highlands of s. MO and n. AR.

Origin/Endemic status: Native

Taxonomy Comments: In VA, var. heterophylla dominates in sw. VA and along southern Piedmont river bluffs, with disjunct populations in calcareous ravines in the upper Coastal Plain (Surry County); it also extends less commonly into the northern VA mountains and foothills, where var. americana is more prevalent, but seems to be absent (or very uncommon) in the Potomac valley east of the Blue Ridge. Pigott (2012) recognizes this entity at subspecific rank and treats it as one of three subspecies of T. caroliniana.

Synonymy: = Ar, C, Fl4, K1, K3, K4, NE, NY, Pa, Tn, Va, WH3, Hardin (1990), McCarthy (2012); = n/a – Tat; = Tilia caroliniana Mill. ssp. heterophylla (Vent.) Pigott – Pigott (2012); = Tilia heterophylla Vent. – F, Il, RAB, W, WV; < Tilia americana L. – FNA6; > Tilia australis Small – S, S13; > Tilia eburnea Ashe – S, S13; > Tilia heterophylla Vent. – G, S, S13; > Tilia lasioclada Sarg. – S; > Tilia michauxii Nutt. – S, S13; > Tilia monticola Sarg. – G; > Tilia venulosa Sarg.

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Wetland Indicator Status:

  • Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Eastern Mountains and Piedmont: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Great Plains: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Midwest: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Northcentral & Northeast: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)

Heliophily: 4

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