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Fraxinus biltmoreana Beadle. Biltmore Ash, Biltmore White Ash. Phen: Apr-May; Aug-Oct. Hab: Mesic slopes, rich cove forests, dry calcareous or mafic glades and woodlands (with Juniperus virginiana and Carya glabra), calcareous hammocks. Dist: NJ, OH, and IL south to n. peninsular FL, c. AL, c. MS, and LA.

Origin/Endemic status: Endemic

Taxonomy Comments: This controversial taxon has been recently clarified by Nesom (2010), though much additional information is needed to fully establish its distribution, ecology, and evolutionary origins. It is hexaploid (and possibly also tetraploid) (Whittemore et al. 2018). Whittemore et al. (2018) were disinclined to accept F. biltmoreana and F. smallii as taxa because of the lack of correlation of ploidy with morphological characters; additional study is needed.

Synonymy: = Il, S, Tn, Miller (1955); = Fraxinus americana L. var. biltmoreana (Beadle) J.Wright bis ex Fernald – F, G, Pa, RAB, WV; = Fraxinus biltmoreana Beadle var. biltmoreana – Campbell (2017); < Fraxinus americana L. – Ar, C, Fl6, K1, K3, K4, NE, Va, W, WH3, Hardin (1974); < Fraxinus biltmoreana Beadle – Whittemore et al (2018); > Fraxinus catawbiensis Ashe

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image of plant© Erik Danielson source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Alan Weakley source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Alan Weakley source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Erik Danielson source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Alan Weakley source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Alan Weakley source | Original Image ⭷

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