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Circaea alpina Linnaeus ssp. alpina . Alpine Enchanter's-nightshade. Phen: Jun-Sep. Hab: Moist organic soil at high elevations (especially in spruce-fir and northern hardwood forests), rocky or gravelly seepages, in spray behind waterfalls, at dripping cliff bases. Dist: Ssp. alpina is itself circumboreal, in North America ranging from NL (Newfoundland) and NL (Labrador), west to AK, south to MD, w. NC, e. TN, KY, n. IL, MN, MT, and WA, disjunct in montane sites southward in the w. United States, such as the Black Hills of SD, and isolated montane sites in CO, AZ, and NM.

Origin/Endemic status: Native

Taxonomy Comments: C. alpina is treated by Boufford (1983) as a circumboreal complex of six subspecies.

Synonymy: = FNA10, GrPl, K1, K3, K4, NE, NY, Pa, Va, Boufford (1983 [1982]), Munz (1965), Wagner, Hoch, & Raven (2007); = Circaea alpina L. var. alpina – C; < Circaea alpina L. – F, G, GW2, Il, Mi, RAB, S, S13, Tn, W, WV

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Wetland Indicator Status:

  • Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain: FACW (name change)
  • Eastern Mountains and Piedmont: FACW (name change)
  • Great Plains: FACW (name change)
  • Midwest: FACW (name change)
  • Northcentral & Northeast: FACW (name change)

Heliophily: 3

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image of plant© Arthur Haines | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Gary P. Fleming | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Layla Dishman | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Gary P. Fleming | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Erik Danielson source | Original Image ⭷


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