Monotropa Linnaeus. Ghost Pipes, Indian Pipes.
A genus of 3 or more species, mycoheterotrophic herbs, of North America, Central America, South America, and e. Asia. Monotropa has a primary fungal associate with the basidiomycete Russula. The segregation of Monotropa, Hypopitys, and Monotropsis into the Monotropaceae or their inclusion in the Ericaceae has sometimes been controversial. Their inclusion in the Ericaceae has been defended (Kron & Chase 1993, Judd & Kron 1993) and as become the consensus position (APG IV), but as a monophyletic clade sister to a narrower Ericaceae, family level recognition is a credible alternative.
Ref: Bidartondo & Bruns (2001); Keesling (2020); Keesling, Broe, & Freudenstein (2021); Stevens et al. In Kubitzki et al. (2004); Wallace (1975); Wallace (2009a) In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2009). Show full citations.