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*Torilis helvetica (Jacquin) C.C. Gmelin. Spreading Bur-Parsley, Field Hedge-Parsley. Phen: May-Jun (-Jul). Hab: Roadsides, fields, disturbed areas. Dist: Native of Mediterranean Europe and n. Africa. Reported as new to DE (Longbottom, Naczi, & Knapp 2016).

Origin/Endemic status: Europe

Taxonomy Comments: The widely naturalized Torilis in eastern North America is not Torilis arvensis s.s., or Torilis arvensis ssp. arvensis, but Torilis arvensis ssp. recta or (if treated at species rank, as here) Torilis helvetica.

Synonymy: = Banfi, Galasso, & Soldano (2011); = n/a – F, Pa, Tat; = Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link ssp. recta – Jury (1996), Jury (2003); < Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link – Ar, C, Fl7, G, GrPl, Il, MC, Mo2, NcTx, NY, Ok, RAB, Tn, Va, W, WH3, DiTommaso et al (2014); < Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link ssp. arvensis – FNA, K1, K3, K4

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image of plant© Aidan Campos source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Sonnia Hill | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Aidan Campos source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Aidan Campos source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Aidan Campos source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Aidan Campos source | Original Image ⭷

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