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Clintonia umbellulata (Michaux) Morong. Speckled Wood-lily, White Clintonia. Phen: Mid May-early Jul; Aug-Oct. Hab: Red oak and other oak forests, mesic to dry ridges and slopes, less commonly in northern hardwood forests, generally at lower elevations than C. borealis, though the two species can co-occur. Dist: An Appalachian endemic: c. NY west to s. OH, south to n. GA (Jones & Coile 1988).

Origin/Endemic status: Native

Taxonomy Comments: Clintonia alleghaniensis Harned, differing from C. umbellulata in its ultramarine blue berry, similar in color to C. borealis (vs. black) is known from a number of sites in VA, MD, WV, and NC. It has been variously interpreted as a species, a hybrid of C. borealis and C. umbellulata, or merely an odd form of C. umbellulata; it needs further study. Clintonia umbellulata is "distinguished only by the ultramarine fruit color (versus black in C. umbellulata (Michaux) Morong). Blain (1997) demonstrated that this taxon was not a hybrid between C. borealis (2n = 2x =16) and C. umbellulata (2n = 2x = 14) as was often presumed, but found no evidence of genetic divergence between C. umbellulata and C. allegheniensis (also 2n = 2x = 14). However, genetic identities (based upon allozymes) were high among all three species and no evidence has been presented to date that the variation in fruit color is not associated with other adaptive genetic variation" (as quoted in Maryland Wildlife and Heritage Service 2019).

Synonymy: = C, F, FNA26, G, K1, K3, K4, NY, Pa, RAB, S13, Tn, Va, W, Hayashi et al (2001); = Xeniatrum umbellulatum (Michx.) Small – S; > Clintonia alleghaniensis Harned – Maryland Natural Heritage Program (2019); > Clintonia umbellulata (Michx.) Morong – Maryland Natural Heritage Program (2019)

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image of plant© Keith Bradley | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Will Stuart | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Keith Bradley | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Edwin Bridges | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Edwin Bridges | Original Image ⭷

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