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Ophioglossum pycnostichum (Fernald) Á. Löve & D. Löve. Southern Adder’s-tongue. Phen: Mar-Jul. Hab: Bottomland forests, moist loamy soils of successional forests and old fields. Dist: S. NJ, IN, IL, and s. MI south to GA, MS, and e. TX; s. Mexico.

Origin/Endemic status: Native

Taxonomy Comments: O. vulgatum (defined narrowly) is Eurasian. Fernald (1939) provides a number of characters to separate this taxon from Eurasian O. vulgatum s.s. While Wagner in FNA (1993) subsumes "pycnostichum" in O. vulgatum, he points out that "a distinctive large-spored form with a chromosome number of 2n= ca. 1320" occurs "in the Appalachians", suggesting the possibility of cryptic taxa within "pycnostichum" (= southeastern North American O. vulgatum). The best treatment of this complex remains uncertain and needs additional study.

Synonymy: = Ar, Tn, Va, W; = Ophioglossum vulgatum L. var. pycnostichum Fernald – C, F, GrPl, Pa, RAB, Tat, WV; < Ophioglossum vulgatum L. – ETx1, FNA2, FoC, G, Il, K1, K3, K4, Meso1, Mo1, S13, Sf, Tx, TxFerns

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image of plant© Bruce A. Sorrie | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Gary P. Fleming | Original Image ⭷