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Convallaria pseudomajalis J. Bartram. American Lily-of-the-Valley. Phen: Apr-Jun; Aug. Hab: Mountain forests, particularly in rocky woodlands or forests on or near ridgetops under northern red oak at about 1000 to 1500 m elevation, sometimes at lower elevations (down to at least 700 m) and under Quercus montana. Dist: Endemic to the Southern Appalachians: WV and VA through NC and TN to ne. GA (Jones & Coile 1988) and nw. SC (there appears to be no documentation for old reports by Bartram, Rafinesque, and Greene of this species for PA).

Origin/Endemic status: Endemic

Taxonomy Comments: Cronquist's (1991) statement that Southern Appalachian plants "may reflect an early escape of a different phase of the species [C. majalis] from cultivation" can be discounted, as C. pseudomajalis has a broad suite of morphological distinctions from European C. majalis and also characteristically occurs on ridges remote from present or past habitations; there is no doubt that the taxon is both native and taxonomically distinct. Utech in FNA (2002a) states that our plants are more closely related to the Asian taxon, variously treated as C. keiskei Miquel or C. majalis var. keiskei (Miquel) Makino, than to the European C. majalis s.s. C. montana Rafinesque is an illegitimate and superfluous name and cannot be used; the oldest legitimate name is C. pseudomajalis J. Bartram.

Synonymy: = K4, Va; = Convallaria majalis L. ssp. majuscula (Greene) Gandhi, Reveal, & Zarucchi var. majuscula (Greene) Gandhi, Reveal, & Zarucchi – Gandhi, Reveal, & Zarucchi (2012); = Convallaria majalis L. var. montana H.E.Ahles – FNA26, RAB, Tn; = Convallaria majuscula Greene – K1, K3; = Convallaria montana Raf. – F, W, WV, illegitimate and superfluous name; < Convallaria majalis L. – C, G, S, S13, Judd (2003)

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Heliophily ?: 3

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image of plant© Scott Ward | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Will Stuart | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Scott Ward | Original Image ⭷


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