Smilax laurifolia Linnaeus. clade: B4. Phen: Jul-Aug; Sep-Oct of the second year (and persisting). Hab: Pocosins, swamp forests, wooded seeps and bogs, swamps, and other wetlands, often with groundwater influence. Dist: Primarily a Southeastern Coastal Plain species, from NJ south to s. FL, west to w. TN, AR, and e. TX, but with substantial distribution inland in the "hard-rock" provinces; Bahamas and Cuba.
ID notes: This Smilax is especially vigorous and viciously armed, larger stems black and to over 1 cm in diameter, beset with stout prickles approaching 1 cm in length.
Origin/Endemic status: Native
Synonymy: = Ar, Bah, C, ETx1, F, FNA26, G, GW1, K1, K3, K4, RAB, S, Tn, Tx, Va, W, WH3, Bullard & Allen (2013), Coker (1944), Judd (1998)