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Key to Helianthus

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1 Leaves basally disposed, the plants scapose to subscapose, the stem leaves relatively few (with 2-8 nodes below the inflorescence), those on the upper stem opposite or alternate, strongly reduced upward in size as compared to the persistent basal leaves; [section Atrorubentes]
1 Leaves cauline, plants leafy the length of the stem, the stem leaves many (with 10 or more nodes below the inflorescence), basal leaves lacking (at least at anthesis).
  2 Plant a tap-rooted annual (rarely surviving a second year)
  2 Plant a perennial from crown buds or rhizomes, the roots sometimes tuberous-thickened; [section Atrorubentes].
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