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Key to Carex, Key D: Subkey in Carex

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1 Pistillate spikes all or in part borne on the elongate, aboveground stem.
  2 Bracts of the lowermost non-basal spike with well-developed sheath > 4 mm long.
    3 Beak of perigynium entire, notched, or with indistinct teeth < 0.6 mm long.
      4 Bracts of the lowermost non-basal spike bladeless, or with a blade < 2 mm long.
      4 Bracts of the lowermost non-basal spike with blade > 3 mm long (and often much longer).
          6 Achene tip with at most a short apiculus.
             7 Leaves usually glabrous, to scabrous on the veins.
               8 Bases of plants distinctly red or purple.
  2 Bracts of the lowermost non-basal spike sheathless or with sheath < 4 mm long.
                                16 Leaf sheaths (and usually the blades as well) pubescent.
                                    18 Perigynia > 3.5 mm long, the tip tapering or abruptly beaked.
                                       19 Longer peduncles of pistillate spikes 0-1 cm long; perigynia < 3× as long as wide, abruptly contracted to a short stipe at the base.
                                             22 Leaf blades glabrous on the upper surface, often with rough margins or tip; beak of perigynium straight.
                                               23 Fronts of leaf sheaths not ladder-fibrillose, sometimes breaking into longitudinal fibers; leaves and sheaths not septate-nodulose.
                                                      26 Leaf blades, at least toward the tip, M-shaped in cross-section when young, the upper surface usually with 2 marginal veins more prominent than the midvein; staminate spikes 1-4
                                                          28 Plants with most pistillate spikes on obvious elongated stems; culms shorter than or longer than the leaves.
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