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Key to Carex, [26o] Section 11 Stellulatae: section Stellulatae

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1 Spikes usually solitary; leaves involute; anthers 2.0-3.6 mm long; [mucky bogs, south to DE and e. MD; disjunct in sc. NC and s. AL and s. MS]
1 Spikes 2-8; leaves flat or folded; anthers 0.6-2.2 (-2.4) mm long.
image of plant
Show caption*© Mark Kluge, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC), uploaded by Mark Kluge
..2 Perigynium beak smooth-margined (use at least 10× magnification)
image of plant
Show caption*© Scott Ward, some rights reserved (CC BY), uploaded by Scott Ward
image of plant
Show caption*no rights reserved, uploaded by Étienne Lacroix-Carignan
..2 Perigynium beak serrulate on margin (use at least 10× magnification).
....3 Widest leaves 2.8-5.0 mm wide.
......4 Lower perigynia of spikes mostly 1.1-1.7× as long as wide, mostly 2.1-3.0 mm wide
......4 Lower perigynia of spikes (1.5-) 1.7-3× as long as wide, mostly 1.2-2.0 mm wide.
image of plant
Show caption*© Gary P. Fleming
........5 Inflorescences mostly 3-8.5 cm long, the lowermost 2 spikes separated by 10-40 mm; [ sw. VA south to nw. SC and n. GA]
........5 Inflorescences mostly 1.5-3 cm long, the lowermost 2 spikes separated by 1.3-9.5 mm; [south to n. PA]
....3 Widest leaves 0.8-2.7 mm wide.
..........6 Terminal spikes entirely staminate; anthers (1.0-) 1.2-2.2 (-2.4) mm long
..........6 Terminal spikes partly or entirely pistillate; anthers 0.6-2.2 (-2.4) m long.
............ 7 Terminal spikes without a distinct narrowed base of staminate scales, the staminate portion < 1 mm long
............ 7 Terminal spikes with a distinct narrowed base of staminate scales 1.0-16.5 mm long.
............ ..8 Lower perigynia 2.0-3.0 mm wide
............ ..8 Lower perigynia 0.9-2.0 mm wide.
image of plant
Show caption*© Scott Ward, some rights reserved (CC BY), uploaded by Scott Ward
............ ....9 Lower perigynia mostly 2.8-4.8 mm long; lower perigynia (1.7-) 1.8-3.6× as long as wide; perigynia beaks 0.95-2.0 mm long, mostly 0.45-0.85× as long as the perigynium body
............ ....9 Lower perigynia mostly 1.9-3.0 mm long; lower perigynia 1.0-2.0 (-2.2)× as long as wide; perigynia beaks 0.4-0.95 mm long, mostly 0.2-0.5× as long as the perigynium body.
............ ......10 Perigynia mostly nerveless over the achene on the adaxial surface; beak of perigynia conspicuously setulose-serrulate; perigynia often more-or-less convexly tapered from widest point to the beak, thus forming a weak shoulder; [of calcareous sites, in our area restricted to the Mountains of VA]
............ ......10 Perigynia mostly 1-10-nerved over the achene on the adaxial surface; beak of perigynia more sparsely serrulate, with definite spaces between the often single teeth; perigynia more-or-less cuneate or concavely tapered from widest point to the beak, not forming a shoulder; [of a variety of situations, not generally calcareous].
............ ........11 Widest leaves 1.6-2.7 mm wide; infructescence mostly 18-45 mm long; [widespread in our area]
............ ........11 Widest leaves 0.6-1.6 mm wide; infructescence mostly 8-20 mm long; [primarily of the Coastal Plain in our area, widely scattered elsewhere]
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