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Key to Violaceae

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1 Plant acaulescent or caulescent; leaf blades of many species about as broad as long or broader, base cordate; peduncle not articulated; bottom petal spurred at base, blade distinctly shorter than lateral and upper petals
1 Plant caulescent; leaf blades much longer than broad, base narrowly cuneate; peduncle/pedicel juncture articulated; bottom petal saccate at base, blade slightly to greatly exserted beyond lateral and upper petals.
..2 Leaves strictly alternate; leaf blades entire or with 1-2 random coarse teeth on either margin; corolla uniformly green; bottom petal < 1.3× as long as the others, blade slightly expanded, retuse; capsule 15-23 mm long; seeds 4.5-5.0 × 3.5-4.8 mm, subglobose, tan; [native, of nutrient-rich forests]
..2 Leaves strictly opposite, or upper leaves alternate and lower (sub)opposite; leaf blades entire, with few random crenations, or uniformly crenate or serrate; corolla white to violet or blue with yellow throat; bottom petal 1.5-3× as long as the others, blade somewhat to very much expanded, emarginate to broadly rounded; capsule < 10 mm long; seeds < 2 mm broad, flattened, black; [native of OK and TX westward, also as exotic waifs eastward]
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