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For Betula

Ashburner, K., and H.A. McAllister. 2016. The genus Betula: a taxonomic revision of the birches. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.

Furlow, J.J. 1990. The genera of Betulaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arb. 71: 1-67.

Furlow, J.J. 1997. Betulaceae. In Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1997. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 3, Magnoliophyta: Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, NY. 590 pp.

Govaerts, R., and D.G. Frodin. 1998. World checklist and bibliography of Fagales (Betulaceae, Corylaceae, Fagaceae and Ticodendraceae). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England.

Grant, W.F., and B.K. Thompson. 1975. Observations on Canadian birches, Betula cordifolia, B. neoalaskana, B. populifolia, B. papyrifera, and B. × caerulea. Can J. Bot. 53: 1478-1490.

Hardin, J.W. 1971a. Studies of the southeastern United States flora. I. Betulaceae. J. Elisha Mitch. Sci. Soc. 87:39-41.

Järvinen, P., A. Palmé, L. Orlando Morales, M. Lännenpää, M. Keinänen, T. Sopanen, and M. Lascoux. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of Betula species (Betulaceae) based on nuclear ADH and chloroplast matK sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 91: 1834-1845.

Kubitzki, K., J.G. Rohwer, and V. Bittrich, eds. 1993. The families and genera of vascular plants. II. Flowering plants – Dicotyledons – Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid families. Springer, Berlin. 653 pp.

Schenk, M.F., C.-N. Thienpont, W.J.M. Koopman, L.J.W.J. Gilissen, and M.J.M. Smulders. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships in Betula (Betulaceae) based on AFLP markers. Tree Genetics & Genomes 4: 911-924.

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