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FamilyScientific Name Common NameHabitatDistributionImage
PinaceaeTsuga canadensisEastern Hemlock, Canada Hemlock, Spruce Pine, Hemlock SpruceIn a wide variety of habitats in the mountains, most typically and abundantly in moist sites in ravines or coves along streams, but likely to be found in all but the driest habitats between 300 and 1500 m (even occurring in peaty bogs, where it has a sickly yellow color and short life expectancy); in the western Piedmont of NC limited to progressively rarer microhabitats (primarily north-facing river bluffs), reaching its eastward limit in NC at a disjunct stand at Hemlock Bluff State Natural Area, Wake County (but uncommon in the Piedmont of VA and even present, though rare, in the Coastal Plain of VA).Widespread in ne. North America, south to w. and c. VA, w. and (rarely) c. NC, nw. SC, n. GA, n. AL, TN, KY, IN, WI, and MN.image of plant
PinaceaeTsuga carolinianaCarolina Hemlock, Crag HemlockPrimarily in open forests on ridge tops, rocky bluffs, or gorge walls, generally in drier and rockier sites than T. canadensis, but the two sometimes growing in close proximity or even intermixed in humid gorges; very limited in the western Piedmont, apparently reaching its eastern limit in NC at Hanging Rock State Park, Stokes County, and ranging east to Halifax County in the Piedmont of VA.T. caroliniana is a rather narrow Southern Appalachian endemic, occurring only in w. NC, e. TN, sw. and sc. VA, nw. SC, and ne. GAimage of plant

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