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Key to Phragmites

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1 Panicle diffuse and partially drooping, with lower lateral branches naked for 1-4 cm; leaf blades of lower stem leaves abscising from the sheaths by mid-season; leaves lightly scabrous on lower surface; culms stout, to 20 mm in diameter, smooth and glossy; [native on the Gulf Coast, from FL and GA westward, and southward into the tropics]
1 Panicle erect and relatively compact, with lower lateral branches spikelet-bearing to base; {}.
..2 Ligules 1.0-1.7 mm long; lower glumes 3.0-6.5 mm long; upper glumes 5.5-11.0 mm long; lemmas 8.0-13.5 mm long; leaf sheaths caducous with age, the culms therefore exposed in the winter, smooth and shiny; [native south to WV and VA]
..2 Ligules 0.4-0.9 mm long; lower glumes 2.5-5.0 mm long; upper glumes 4.5-7.5 mm long; lemmas 7.5-12.5 mm long; leaf sheaths not caducous with age, the culms therefore not exposed in the winter, minutely ridged and not shiny; [introduced and weedy]
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