Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

Colors

Data mode

Key to Agalinis

1 Bracts either lanceolate (and usually with 2 basal lobes) or (3-) 5-7-lobed, the lobes linear; calyx lobes (5-) 7-13 mm long; leaves (2-) 5-45 mm wide, lanceolate to broadly ovate in outline, 1-4× as long as wide, > 12 mm long
..2 Bracts lanceolate (and usually with 2 basal lobes); [calcareous or mafic glades and woodlands, SC, s. AL, MS, se. AR, ec. TX northward]
..2 Bracts (3-) 5-7-lobed, the lobes linear; [prairies; e. KS, e. OK, nc. and c. TX]
1 Bracts either linear or < 3 mm long; calyx lobes 0.2-8 mm long; leaves 0.2-6 (-7) mm wide, either filiform, linear, or narrowly lanceolate, 5-25× as long as wide, or ovate to lanceolate, 2.5-4× as long as wide and also < 3 mm long.
....3 Leaves fleshy; upper leaf surfaces with sessile, dome-shaped trichomes; [wetland habitats].
......4 Plant perennial, from horizontal rhizomes, 7-16 dm tall; corollas 25-35 mm long; [of saturated, seasonally ponded, and tidal freshwater to brackish wetlands]
......4 Plant annual, from fibrous roots, 0.5-7.5 dm tall; corollas 7.5-21 mm long.
........5 Pedicels usually longer than or equaling the leaflike bracts; corollas 12-21 mm long; anther cells 1.8-2.3 mm long, usually long-lanose; filaments lanate; calyx lobes divergent; [of Princess Anne County, VA, southward]
........5 Pedicels usually less than or equaling the leaflike bracts; corollas 7.5-12 mm long; anther cells 1.3-1.8 mm long, glabrous or somewhat pubescent; filaments glabrous or nearly so; calyx lobes erect; [of the Delmarva Peninsula northward]
....3 Leaves filiform, membranous, or stiff; upper leaf surfaces distinctly or minutely scabrous; [a wide range of habitats, including wetlands].
..........6 Lower corolla lobes glabrous on the outer surface; calyx lobes (1.5-) 2-8 mm long, narrowly triangular to lanceolate, 1.5-4× as long as wide.
............7 Leaves linear to filiform (never cleft), 0.4-1.5 (-2) mm wide; leaf surfaces scabrous; axillary fascicles well-developed; pedicels 4-20 mm long; [s. IL, s. MO, e. OK and northwestwards]
............7 Leaves narrowly lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, sometimes the lowest 3-cleft, 2-6 (-7) mm wide; leaf surfaces scabridulous to slightly scabrous; axillary fascicles absent, rarely present; pedicels 1-5 (-6) mm; [MO and KS south to s. LA and s. TX; disjunct east of the Mississippi River in w. TN, and the Black Belt of AL and MS]
..........6 Lower corolla lobes pilose on the outer surface; calyx lobes 0.3-3 (-5) mm long, deltate to broadly lanceolate, 0.8-2× as long as wide.
..............8 Pedicels shorter than the subtending bract.
................9 Upper corolla lobes projecting prominently over the upper anthers; inner surface of corolla throat glabrous across the bases of the upper lobes; pedicels 6-25 mm long
................9 Upper corolla lobes spreading to reflexed, not or slightly projected past the throat; inner surface of corolla throat villous across the bases of the upper lobes; pedicels 0.5-8 mm long.
..................10 Axillary leaf fascicles well-developed, shorter than or roughly equal to the subtending leaves.
....................11 Corollas 22-36 mm long; leaves 15-40 (-50) mm long; styles 14-22 mm long; plants (1-) 5-20 dm tall; [widespread in our region]
....................11 Corollas 12-14 mm long; leaves 10-15 (-20) mm long; styles 4-7.7 mm long; plants 2-4 (-5) dm tall; [Coastal Plain of GA, s. AL, and n. FL]
..................10 Axillary leaf fascicles absent or shorter than the subtending leaves.
......................12 Leaves filiform, 0.2-0.8 mm wide; flowers 1 per node, the uppermost on each branch appearing terminal
......................12 Leaves filiform to linear-lanceolate, 0.6-4 (-5) mm wide; flowers 1-2 per node.
........................13 Leaves 0.5-1.4 mm wide; calyx lobes keeled; seeds black; corollas 15-23 mm long
........................13 Leaves 0.5-4 (-5) mm wide; calyx lobes rounded on the back; seeds dark brown; corollas 9-36 mm long.
..........................14 Corollas 9-20 (-23) mm long; corolla lobes 2.5-5 (-6) mm long; anthers of upper stamens oblique or parallel to the filaments; pollen sacs 1.4-2.0 mm long; [NJ, PA, IN, IL, VA? northwards].
............................15 Anthers sparsely pubescent with brown or white hairs; corolla 10-17 mm long, the lobes ascending or spreading-ascending; style 6-8 mm long
............................15 Anthers densely pubescent with white hairs; corolla 15-20 (-23) mm long, the lobes spreading; style 7-10 mm long
..........................14 Corollas 18-36 mm long; corolla lobes (4-) 5-11 mm long; anthers of upper stamens perpendicular to the filaments; pollen sacs 2.5-3.5 mm long; [widespread]
..............................16 Branches spreading or ascending; stems more-or-less scabridulous; corollas 18-38 mm long
..............................16 Branches virgate; stems glabrous; corollas 20-25 mm long
..............8 Pedicels longer than or equal to the subtending bract.
................................17 Leaves (all) 0.5-3 mm long.
..................................18 Inflorescence a raceme (or with several branches), the flowers borne all along the axes; branches stiff and straight, ascending, quadrangular in cross-section; [NC to n. FL, west to e. LA]
..................................18 Inflorescence a diffuse panicle, with flowers borne in 1’s (or 2’s or 3’s) at the ends of long branches; branches lax, initially spreading, then curving upwards, nearly terete in cross-section; [e. GA south to c. FL peninsula, west to w. LA]
................................17 Leaves (1-) 4-70 mm long, at least some leaves > 4 mm long.
....................................19 Outer surface of the lower corolla lobes pilose.
......................................20 Leaves alternate; axillary leaf fascicles equal to or longer than the subtending leaves
......................................20 Leaves opposite; axillary leaf fascicles absent or shorter than the subtending leaves.
........................................21 Upper corolla lobes projecting prominently over the upper anthers; inner surface of corolla throat glabrous across the bases of the upper lobes; leaves 0.3-6 mm wide; seeds tan to brown
........................................21 Upper corolla lobes spreading to reflexed, not or slightly projected past the throat; inner surface of corolla throat villous across the bases of the upper lobes; leaves 0.2-1.4 (-1.5) mm wide; seeds black or yellowish tan.
..........................................22 Flowers 2 per node; inflorescences racemes; capsules elliptic-ovoid
..........................................22 Flowers 1 per node; inflorescences racemes or panicles; capsules globular-ovoid.
............................................23 Seeds yellowish tan, 0.7-1.2 mm long; pedicels spreading-ascending; [inland provinces, OH, KY, TN, n. AL westwards]
............................................23 Seeds black, 0.4-0.7 mm long; pedicels widely spreading; [Coastal Plain, SC to FL]
....................................19 Outer surface of the lower corolla lobes glabrous.
..............................................24 Pedicels scabrous; axillary leaf fascicles usually present and > 1/2 the length of the subtending leaves (sometimes absent).
................................................25 Corolla lobes unequal in length, 2-6 mm long; upper corolla lobes arched over the anthers; calyx lobes triangular-subulate, recurved, 0.6-1.5 mm long; [Coastal Plain and Interior Highlands, w. MS, AR, LA, OK, and TX]
................................................25 Corolla lobes equal in length, 6-12 mm long; upper corolla lobes spreading; calyx lobes subulate, erect, 0.1-0.6 mm long; [strictly Coastal Plain, GA and Panhandle FL west to e. TX]
..............................................24 Pedicels glabrous or ± scabridulous; leaf axillary fascicles absent or shorter than the subtending leaves.
..................................................26 Corolla throats glabrous externally, sometimes pilose externally proximal to sinuses.
....................................................27 Calyx tube 1.5-3 mm long; calyx lobes 0.1-0.5 mm, deltate; capsules 3-5 mm long; styles 6-9 (-10) mm long; branches widely spreading; [Coastal Plain, e. SC south to n. peninsular FL, west to s. AL]
....................................................27 Calyx tube 3-5.5 mm long; calyx lobes 0.4-2.5 mm long, triangular-subulate to subulate or triangular-lanceolate; capsules 5-8 mm long; styles 12-17 mm long; branches ascending-spreading; [TX].
......................................................28 Leaf blades filiform to narrowly linear; corolla lobes unequal, the upper arched over the anthers; calyx lobes triangular-subulate to subulate, 0.4-0.8 (-1.3) mm long; [barely entering our area in c. TX]
......................................................28 Leaf blades linear; corolla lobes equal, the upper erect to spreading; calyx lobes triangular-lanceolate, 0.8-2.5 mm long; [e. and s. TX]
..................................................26 Corolla throats pilose externally.
........................................................29 Lower and mid stem leaves reflexed or recurved; anthers 2-3.8 mm long; styles 11-16.5 mm long; inner surface of corolla throat glabrous across the bases of the upper corolla lobes, sparsely villous at the sinus between them; [West Gulf Coastal Plain of w. LA and e. TX].
..........................................................30 Calyces hemispheric-campanulate; inflorescences racemes; corollas 17-30 mm long
..........................................................30 Calyces funnelform-obconic; inflorescences racemiform-paniculate; corollas 15-24 mm long
........................................................29 Leaves erect to spreading; anthers 0.6-2.6 mm long; styles 3-12 mm long; inner surface of corolla throat villous across the bases and the sinus of the upper corolla lobes; [collectively more widespread].
............................................................31 Lower and mid stem branches stiffly arching-ascending, ascending, erect-ascending, or spreading-ascending; branches quadrangular in cross-section; capsules globular to oblong; leaves erect, erect-ascending, or ascending, or the lower slightly spreading.
..............................................................32 Leaf blades subulate, elliptic, or filiform; anthers 1.8-2.6 mm long; corollas 15-25 mm long, pink to dark pink, with 2 yellow lines and red spots present in the floor of the throat; corolla lobes 4-7 (-9) mm long
..............................................................32 Leaf blades linear-elliptic, narrowly spatulate, linear-spatulate, or linear; anthers 0.6-2.1 mm long; corollas 8-16 (-17) mm long, whitish to pink, with 2 yellow lines and red or pink spots pale or absent in the floor of the throat; corolla lobes 3-5 mm long.
................................................................33 Calyx lobes deltate, 0.2-0.5 mm long; leaf blades linear-elliptic to narrowly spatulate; anthers 1.5-2.1 mm long; stems 3-8 (-10) dm tall; [DE and MD south to s. FL, west to LA, mainly Coastal Plain and adjacent inland provinces]
................................................................33 Calyx lobes triangular-subulate, 0.3-1.2 mm long; leaf blades linear; anthers 0.6-1.2 mm long; stems 1-5 (-6) dm tall; [mainly OH, KY, TN, and MS northwards and westwards]
............................................................31 Lower and mid stem branches spreading-ascending to laxly and widely spreading; branches subterete to quadrangular-ridged in cross-section; capsules ovoid, obovoid-oblong, ovoid-globular, or obovoid; leaves spreading to spreading-ascending.
..................................................................34 Calyx lobes subulate to triangular or lanceolate, (0.2-) 0.5-2.5 mm long.
....................................................................35 Branches ascending to spreading, quadrangular-ridged; capsules ovoid; calyx lobes subulate to triangular, (0.2-) 0.5-1.5 (-2) mm long; styles (5-) 7-12 mm long; [MS, TN, and KY eastwards]
....................................................................35 Branches laxly and widely spreading, proximal arching upward, strongly quadrangular; capsules obovoid; calyx lobes lanceolate, 1.3-2.5 mm long; styles 3-5 mm long; MO, AR, and MO west to e. OK and se. TX]
..................................................................34 Calyx lobes deltate-subulate or subulate, 0.2-0.5 mm long.
......................................................................36 Corolla lobes 3-4.5 mm long; anthers 1.2-1.8 mm long; styles 5-7 mm long; leaf blades linear to linear-spatulate; capsules obovoid-oblong; mature seeds golden brown
......................................................................36 Corolla lobes 4-7.3 mm long; anthers 1.7-2.5 mm long; styles 7-9 mm long; leaf blades filiform to linear-filiform; capsules ovoid-globular; mature seeds yellow