Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Keyed in multiple places:

Key D: Apiaceae with leaves 2-4× pinnately-ternately compound, the ultimate leaflets distinct and relatively broad

1 Leaflets entire.
..2 Leaflets linear (resembling winged rachises); corolla white
..2 Leaflets broad, elliptic, ovate, or obovate, sparingly lobed; corolla yellow
1 Leaflets variously serrate, dentate, and/or incised.
....3 Plants in flower.
......4 Corolla yellow, maroon, or pale creamy yellow.
........5 Flowers yellow, maroon, or pale creamy-yellow; central flower of each umbellet staminate and pedicelled; fruits all pedicelled in all umbellets; developing fruits subterete to slightly dorsally compressed, several or all of the ribs with thin-edged wings
........5 Flowers yellow; central flower of each umbellet either staminate and pedicelled, or pistillate and sessile; fruits all pedicelled in some umbellets (those with a staminate central flower), or the central fruit sessile in some umbellets (those with a pistillate central flower); developing fruits laterally compressed, all of the ribs rounded and cordlike
......4 Corolla white. {Add to keylead 4b: Ammi majus, Angelica dentata, Apium graveolens var. dulce, Cicuta bolanderi, Cicuta mexicana, Imperatoria ostruthium, Petroselinum crispum}
..........6 Ovary hispid or pubescent.
............ 7 Rays 16-25; leaves somewhat coriaceous; leaflet bases often cuneate or obliquely truncate; [plants of dry habitats]
............ 7 Rays 3-5; leaves thin in texture; leaflet bases rounded, subcordate, or broadly cuneate; [plants of moist forests]
..........6 Ovary glabrous.
............ ..8 Plants 1-9 dm tall at maturity; [rarely naturalized aliens].
............ ....9 Ovary (and later the fruits) laterally compressed, not winged; [plants of uplands]
............ ....9 Ovary (and later the fruits) terete, the ribs corky-winged; [plants of wetlands]
............ ..8 Plants 6-18 dm tall at maturity; [collectively common and widespread natives].
............ ......10 Sheaths of the upper leaves dilated, > 1 cm wide when flattened; [plants of moist habitats, from GA northward in the Mountains, extending into adjacent provinces towards the northern edge of our area]
............ ......10 Sheaths of the upper leaves not dilated, < 1 cm wide; [plants either of wetlands or of moist to dry forests].
............ ........11 Veins of the leaflets directed to the sinuses; leaflets mostly 2.5-5× as long as wide, acuminate at the tip; [of wetlands]
............ ........11 Veins of the leaflets directed to the tips of the teeth or lobes; leaflets mostly 1.3-1.8× as long as wide, acute to obtuse at the tip; [of moist to dry forests]
....3 Plants in fruit. {Add to key 3b: Ammi majus, Apium graveolens var. dulce, Imperatoria ostruthium, Petroselinum crispum, }
............ ..........12 Fruit hispid or pubescent (regardless of winging).
............ ............ 13 Fruits 4-6 mm long, hispid across the surfaces; rays 16-25; leaves somewhat coriaceous; leaflet bases often cuneate or obliquely truncate; [plants of dry habitats]
............ ............ 13 Fruits 18-24 mm long, oblanceolate or linear, appressed-pubescent on the ribs; rays 3-5; leaves thin in texture; leaflet bases rounded, subcordate, or broadly cuneate; [plants of moist forests]
............ ..........12 Fruit glabrous (sometimes winged or prominently ribbed as well).
............ ............ ..14 Fruits dorsally compressed (strongly to slightly) or subterete, either thin-winged or corky-winged.
............ ............ ....15 Ribs very corky; fruits 2-3 mm long; [rare aquatic or semiaquatic alien]
............ ............ ....15 Ribs thin-winged; fruits 3-8 mm long; [common natives of most to submesic forests].
............ ............ ......16 Rays 12-30; fruits 4-8 mm long; plant 6-20 dm tall; sheaths of the upper leaves dilated, > 1 cm wide when flattened
............ ............ ......16 Rays 5-10; fruits 3-6 mm long; plant 5-10 dm tall; sheaths of the upper leaves not dilated, < 1 cm wide
............ ............ ..14 Fruits laterally compressed, not winged (except thin-winged in Ligusticum).
............ ............ ........17 Veins of the leaflets directed to the sinuses; leaflets mostly 2.5-5× as long as wide, acuminate at the tip; [of wetlands]
............ ............ ........17 Veins of the leaflets either directed to the tips of the teeth or lobes, or reticulating extensively and becoming obscure before reaching the margin; leaflets mostly 1.3-1.8× as long as wide, acute to obtuse at the tip; [of moist to dry forests].
............ ............ ..........18 Leaflet venation palmate-ternate, each leaflet with 3 (-5) main veins from the base (the central vein then with pinnate secondary veins); plants from rhizomes
............ ............ ..........18 Leaflet venation pinnate, each leaflet with a dominant central vein (it then with pinnate secondary veins); plants from a caudex, taproot, or cluster of fibrous or fleshy roots.
............ ............ ............ 19 Lateral veins of the leaflet parallel and straight, clearly extending to the tip of each tooth; leaflet base often strongly oblique; leaflet margin entire in the lower ¼ to 1/3
............ ............ ............ 19 Lateral veins of the leaflet arcing, reticulating and becoming obscure before reaching the leaflet margin; leaflet base symmetrical or slightly oblique; leaflet margin toothed to or very close to the base