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Key to Lepidium

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1 Upper cauline leaves sessile, and also perfoliate, sagittate, or auriculate at the base.
..2 Upper cauline leaves cordate-amplexicaul; basal leaves 2-3-pinnatifid; petals yellow
..2 Upper cauline leaves sagittate or auriculate; basal leaves entire, dentate, or sinuate (1-2-pinnatifid in L. oblongum); petals white or absent.
....3 Stamens 2; petals absent (or minute); basal leaves 1-2-pinnatifid; [wool-alien waif, probably not established in our area]
....3 Stamens 6; petals present; basal leaves entire, dentate, sinuate (rarely 1-pinnatifid); [collectively common and widespread in our area].
......4 Plants annual, not rhizomatous; fruits dehiscent, apically broadly winged, notched at the apex; fruiting racemes elongated, much longer than broad
......4 Plants perennial, rhizomatous; fruits indehiscent, apically not winged, not notched at the apex; fruiting racemes corymbose
1 Upper cauline leaves petiolate, not perfoliate, sagittate, or auriculate at the base.
........5 Valves of the silicles rugose-verrucose; some inflorescences (at least) borne opposite a leaf.
..........6 Silicles reniform to ovate-cordate, 2.3-3.4 mm long, strongly ridged, not notched at the apex, indehiscent
..........6 Silicles bilobed, 1.3-1.7 mm long, reticulate, strongly notched at the apex; splitting into two halves
........5 Valves of the silicles smooth; inflorescences not leaf-opposed.
............ 7 Silicles 5-6 mm long; stamens 6
............ 7 Silicles 1.5-3.5 (-4) mm long; stamens 2.
............ ..8 Fruiting pedicels erect-appressed; nectar glands filiform, 0.3-0.6 mm long; stems with flattened, retrorse, scale-like trichomes; [wool-alien waif, probably not established in our area]
............ ..8 Fruiting pedicels ascending to spreading; nectar glands broader in shape, < 0.2 mm long; [collectively common and widespread in our area].
............ ....9 Silicles pubescent or only ciliate at the margin.
............ ......10 Silicles pubescent with subappressed hairs; lower surfaces of pedicels glabrous
............ ......10 Silicles pubescent with spreading hairs; lower surfaces of pedicels pubescent
............ ....9 Silicles glabrous.
............ ........11 Petals 0-0.8× as long as the sepals.
............ ..........12 Upper cauline leaves laciniate to pinnatifid; inflorescence rachis with hairs to 0.8 mm long.
............ ............ 13 Fruiting pedicels (2.0-) 3.0-4.5 mm long; stems usually erect or ascending
............ ............ 13 Fruiting pedicels 1.5-2.0 (-2.5) mm long; stems usually prostrate
............ ..........12 Upper cauline leaves entire, serrate, or dentate; inflorescence axis glabrous, papillose, or with hairs < 0.1 mm long.
............ ............ ..14 Basal leaves 2-3-pinnatifid; seeds marginless; fresh plants fetid
............ ............ ..14 Basal leaves undivided or to 1-pinnatifid; seeds narrowly winged (marginless in L. africanum); fresh plants not fetid.
............ ............ ....15 Silicles oblong; seeds marginless
............ ............ ....15 Silicles orbicular or broadly ovate or obovate; seeds with a narrow wing.
............ ............ ......16 Inflorescence rachis with straight, usually subclavate papillae; silicles widest above the middle
............ ............ ......16 Inflorescence rachis with minute trichomes, these usually subappressed; silicles widest at or below the middle
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