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*Viola arvensis Murray. Section: Melanium. Subsection: Bracteolatae. European Field Pansy. Phen: Chasmogamous flower Mar–Jul (-Aug); cleistogamous fruit May-Jun (-Aug). Hab: Roadsides, fields, other disturbed habitats. Dist: Native of Europe, widely introduced.

ID notes:This species is easily distinguished from V. rafinesquei by the petals nearly or fully surpassed by the sepals (the latter often largely concealing the mature capsule), the cream-white corolla (which is rare in the latter), and pinnatifid stipules with the terminal leaf-like lobe much larger and broader than the lateral lobes and having 4 or more crenations per side. It differs from V. tricolor by the pinnately divided stipules, sepals nearly equaling to fully surpassing the petals, and the cream-colored petals.

Origin/Endemic status: Europe

Taxonomy Comments: Apparently does hybridize rarely with V. tricolor (Ballard, Kartesz, & Nishino 2023).

Synonymy: = C, F, FNA6, G, GrPl, Il, K1, K3, K4, Mi, NE, Pa, RAB, S, Tn, Va, W, WV, Ballard () (in prep), Ballard, Kartesz, & Nishino (2023), McKinney & Russell (2002)

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image of plant© Bruce A. Sorrie | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Alan Weakley source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Joey Shaw source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Joey Shaw source | Original Image ⭷