Viola rafinesquei Greene. Section: Melanium. Subsection: Cleistogamae. Phen: Mar-May (chasmogamous), May-Jul (cleistogamous). Hab: Pastures, roadsides, lawns, other disturbed habitats, less commonly in dry rocky woodlands and barrens. Dist: MA and NY west to SD and CO, south to Panhandle FL, TX, and AZ.
ID notes:Winter annual plants flower chasmogamously first, and then progressively reduce petal size until later flowers are all chasmogamous (with 0 petals and 1 stamen).
Origin/Endemic status: Native
Taxonomy Comments: Under the ICN, the spelling of the epithet is corrected to 'rafinesquei".
Synonymy: = Ballard () (in prep); = Viola bicolor Pursh – Ar, Fl2, FNA6, K1, K3, K4, NcTx, Pa, Tn, Va, WH3, McKinney & Russell (2002), later homonym; = Viola kitaibeliana Schult. var. rafinesquii (Greene) Fernald – F; = Viola rafinesquii Greene – C, G, GrPl, Il, RAB, S, Tx, W, WV, unacceptable orthographic variant