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Viola hastata Michaux. Section: Chamaemelanium. Spearleaf Violet, Silverleaf Violet, Halberd-leaf Violet, Halberd-leaved Yellow Violet. Phen: Chasmogamous flower Mar-May; chasmogamous fruit May-Jun; cleistogamous fruit Jun-Aug. Hab: Acidic coves, dry-mesic oak forests, bluff forests, bases of rock ledges. Dist: C. and w. PA and ne. OH south to c. GA, Panhandle FL, sc. AL, and se. MS.

ID notes: This caulescent species is unique in its long hastate leaf blades, which are often bicolorous (‘‘variegated’’) on the upper surface with the gray- or silvery-green lamina separating the darker green veins. With its solitary stem, few or no basal leaves, and long leaf blades, this species could only be mistaken for V. glaberrima, but differs from that in the hastate leaf blades with short but deeply cordate base, and the frequently ‘‘variegated’’ upper surface. The variegated leaf blades are an unusual feature shared with V. hirsutula and V. villosa in subsect. Borealiamericanae, and V. walteri in subsect. Rostratae.

Origin/Endemic status: Native

Synonymy: = C, F, FNA6, G, K1, K2, K4, Pa, RAB, S, S13, Tn, Va, W, WV, Ballard () (in prep), Ballard, Kartesz, & Nishino (2023), McKinney & Russell (2002); = n/a – Fl2

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Wetland Indicator Status:

  • Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain: FACU
  • Eastern Mountains and Piedmont: UPL
  • Midwest: UPL
  • Northcentral & Northeast: UPL

Heliophily ?: 3

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image of plant© Alan Cressler: viola hastata, east palisades, chattahoochee river national recreation area, fulton county, georgia 1 by Alan Cressler source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Armin Weise CC-BY | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Will Stuart | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Alan Cressler: viola hastata, big creek, big frog wilderness, cherokee national forest, polk county, tennessee 1 by Alan Cressler source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Armin Weise CC-BY | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Bruce Sorrie | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Gary P. Fleming | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Armin Weise CC-BY | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Edwin Bridges | Original Image ⭷

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