Viola fimbriatula J.E. Smith. Section: Nosphinium. Subsection: Borealiamericanae. Phen: Chasmogamous flower Apr-May; chasmogamous fruit May-Jun; cleistogamous fruit Jul-Sep. Hab: Somewhat acidic, well-drained sandy and gravelly soils in glades and prairie-like openings, or on slopes of oak forests. Dist: NS west to WI, south to w. NC, e. TN, n. GA, and ne. AL.
ID notes:The distinctive habit of the spreading to prostrate leaves in living plants of this species, resembling a primrose rosette, and the proportionally short(er) petiole relative to the leaf blade distinguish it from the most similar species V. emarginata and V. sagittata in the Sagittata species group, which also share the densely spurred petal, sharply acute sepals, prominent elongating auricles, and unspotted cleistogamous capsules. It shares winged petioles with V. emarginata, but differs from V. emarginata and V. sagittata in its densely hirtellous foliage and chasmogamous peduncles, ciliate sepals, and declined cleistogamous peduncle. Young flowering plants of this species are occasionally troublesome to separate from midwestern V. sagittata, given that the commonest phenotype in the latter exhibits sparsely to moderately hirtellous foliage and occasionally sparsely hirtellous peduncles and sparsely ciliate sepals; however, the erect leaf habit, proportionally longer petioles, and absence of prominent petiole wings in V. sagittata will separate the two.
Origin/Endemic status: Native
Synonymy: = F, G, Il, RAB, S, W, WV, Ballard, Kartesz, & Nishino (2023), Gil-ad (1998); = Viola sagittata Aiton var. ovata (Nutt.) Torr. & A.Gray – FNA6, K1, K3, NE, Pa, Tn, Va, Haines (2001), McKinney & Russell (2002); < Viola sagittata Aiton – C