Viola septentrionalis Greene. Section: Nosphinium. Subsection: Borealiamericanae. Phen: May-Jun. Hab: Moist woods, moist thickets. Dist: Boreal and montane, interruptedly transcontinental, NL to e.-c. ONT, s. to NJ, PA, along Appalachians to w. NC and e. TN; apparently disjunct in the nw. Rocky Mtns (reports in the s. Great Lakes and Midwest are misidentifications) (P. McMillan, pers. comm.), e. TN (Chester, Wofford, & Kral 1997), MI, WI, MT, and WA.
Origin/Endemic status: Native
Taxonomy Comments: Often misidentified as Viola sororia; in Appalachian populations foliage is more densely hirsute and the calyx is more conspicuously ciliate with long “eyelash” hairs than in northern populations.
Synonymy: = G, Il, K1, K3, Va, W, WV, Ballard () (in prep), Gil-ad (1998); < Viola palmata L. var. sororia (Willd.) Pollard – RAB; ? Viola septentrionalis Greene var. septentrionalis – F; < Viola sororia Willd. – C, FNA6, K4, Pa, Haines (2001); < Viola sororia Willd. var. sororia – McKinney & Russell (2002)