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Viola septentrionalis Greene var. septentrionalis . Section: Nosphinium. Subsection: Borealiamericanae. Northern Wood Violet. Phen: Chasmogamous flower May-Jun; chasmogamous fruit Jun; cleistogamous fruit May-Oct. Hab: Moist woods, moist thickets. Dist: Boreal and montane, interruptedly transcontinental, NL to e.-c. ONT, s. to NJ, PA, along Appalachians to w. NC and e. TN; apparently disjunct in the nw. Rocky Mtns (reports in the s. Great Lakes and Midwest are misidentifications) (P. McMillan, pers. comm.), e. TN (Chester, Wofford, & Kral 1997), MI, WI, MT, and WA.

ID notes: The most similar species likely to be confused with this violet in our region is V. sororia sensu stricto with leaf blades about as broad as to broader than long, and which also has pubescent foliage, obtuse to rounded sepals, and a heavily spotted or blotched cleistogamous capsule on a prostrate peduncle. This species differs from V. sororia sensu stricto by the spreading and often longer hairs on the leaf blade margins, sepals ciliate (often with longer hairs) to the apex, prominent auricles elongating weakly in fruit, and brown seeds lacking spots or with small weak darker spots or streaks.

Origin/Endemic status: Native

Taxonomy Comments: Often misidentified as Viola sororia; in Appalachian populations the foliage is more densely hirsute and the calyx is more conspicuously ciliate with long “eyelash” hairs than in northern populations.

Synonymy: = Ballard, Kartesz, & Nishino (2023); = n/a – Tat; = Viola septentrionalis Greene – G, Il, K1, K3, Va, W, WV, Ballard () (in prep), Gil-ad (1998); < Viola palmata L. var. sororia (Willd.) Pollard – RAB; ? Viola septentrionalis Greene var. septentrionalis – F; < Viola sororia Willd. – C, FNA6, K4, Pa, Haines (2001); < Viola sororia Willd. var. sororia – McKinney & Russell (2002)

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Wetland Indicator Status:

  • Eastern Mountains and Piedmont: FACU (name change)
  • Midwest: FACU (name change)
  • Northcentral & Northeast: FACU (name change)

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image of plant© Paul Roots, some rights reserved (CC BY), uploaded by Paul Roots source CC-BY | Original Image ⭷ Warning: was NOT research grade.
image of plant© Paul Roots, some rights reserved (CC BY), uploaded by Paul Roots source CC-BY | Original Image ⭷

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