Viola sororia Willdenow var. sororia . Section: Nosphinium. Subsection: Borealiamericanae. Phen: Feb-May. Hab: Loam or clay soils in dry-mesic to wet-mesic forests, higher ground and terraces or borders of bottomlands, and lawns and other anthropogenically modified sites formerly with native vegetation. Dist: NL (Newfoundland) west to MB, south to s. FL and TX.
Origin/Endemic status: Native
Taxonomy Comments: A heterogeneous complex of morphologically divergent but inadequately understood essentially glabrous taxa (“glabrous”, “hirsutula-like”) plus densely hirsute V. sororia sensu stricto; and two other uncertain taxa (Viola domestica E. P. Bicknell and V. pratincola Greene). The taxa share broad obtuse to rounded sepals and generally broad leaf blades, as well as a glabrous spurred petal, but they typically grow separately over the extensive zone of sympatry, occupy distinctly different microsites and maintain their distinctions when growing in the local area. Distinctions and geographic distributions are presently being interpreted.
Synonymy: = Ar, McKinney & Russell (2002); = Viola sororia Willd. – GrPl, K3, NcTx, NE, Va, W, Ballard () (in prep), Gil-ad (1998); > Viola palmata L. var. sororia (Willd.) Pollard – RAB; > Viola papilionacea Pursh – F, RAB, S, WV, misapplied; > Viola papilionacea Pursh var. papilionacea – G, misapplied; > Viola papilionacea Pursh var. priceana (Pollard) Alexander – G, misapplied; > Viola priceana Pollard – S; < Viola sororia Willd. – C, Fl2, FNA6, K4, Tn, Tx, WH3, Haines (2001); > Viola sororia Willd. – F, G, Il, K1, Pa, S