Conopholis americana (Linnaeus) Wallroth. Phen: Mar-Jun. Hab: Rich, moist forests, under and hemiparasitic on Quercus species. Dist: NS west to WI and south to c. peninsular FL, AL, and TN; disjunct in se. Mexico (CHP, OAX, PUE).
Origin/Endemic status: Native
Other Comments: Haynes (1971) discusses the nature of the parasitism. Conopholis apparently germinates near an oak root, forms a parasitic connection to the root, resulting in the formation of a gall consisting of both Quercus and Conopholis tissue. The gall can be up to 25 cm in diameter, and lasts for many years, repeatedly sending up flowering shoots. It is believed that the gall exists underground for some years prior to first flowering.
Synonymy: = C, F, Fl7, FNA17, G, Il, K1, K3, K4, Mi, NE, NY, Pa, RAB, S, Tn, Va, W, WH3, WV, Haynes (1971), Rodrigues et al (2013), Rodrigues, Colwell, & Stefanović (2011), Thieret (1971); < Conopholis alpina Liebm. – Mex