As treated here, a genus of about 130 species, trees and shrubs, of e. Asia (Himalayas and Sri Lanka to Japan and w. Malaysia) and America (e. North America to West Indies, Central America, and South America); alternate treatments in current use divide Magnolia into as many as 16 genera (of which Magnolia Linnaeus, Houpoea N.H. Xia & C.Y. Wu, Metamagnolia Sima & S.G. Lu, Paramagnolia Sima & S.G. Lu, and Yulania Spach are represented in our flora). Molecular phylogenetics show Magnolia virginiana and Magnolia grandiflora as closely related in a New World primarily subtropical clade, Magnolia macrophylla and Magnolia ashei in one branch in a clade with M. fraseri and M. pyramidata in another branch, Magnolia acuminata as basal in a clade that is otherwise Asian (equivalent to subgenus Yulania), and Magnolia tripetala grouped in another clade that is otherwise Asian (Azuma et al. 2001). The sections used follow Wang et al. (2020).
Ref: Azuma et al. (2001); Azuma, Thien, & Kawano (1999); Figlar & Nooteboom (2004); Frodin & Govaerts (1996); García-Morales, Iamonico, & García Jiménez (2019); Hunt (1998); Kim et al. (2001); Nooteboom In Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993); Palmarola-Bejerano, Romanov, and Bobrov (2008); Sima & Lu (2012); Spongberg (1998); Tobe (1998); Vázquez-García et al. (2016); Wang et al. (2020); Williams (1999). Show full citations.