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Linnaea borealis Linnaeus var. longiflora Torrey. American Twinflower. Phen: Jun-Aug. Hab: Northern hardwoods forests. Dist: Greenland, NL (Labrador), and AK south to WV, IN, IL, IA, NM, AZ, and CA; disjunct in e. TN. L. borealis is documented by an early specimen (1892) from Sevier County, TN, presumably from the Great Smoky Mountains; the TN population (not seen since) is disjunct from e. WV and w. MD.

Origin/Endemic status: Native

Taxonomy Comments: The species is variously divided into infrataxa, with as many as three present in w. North America (varieties longiflora, americana, and borealis). I here accept the interpretation of two taxa, at varietal rank, in which case eastern North American plants are var. longiflora.

Synonymy: = C, G, Il, Mi; = Linnaea borealis L. ssp. longiflora (Torr.) Piper & Beattie – NY, Zika & Tucker (2017); < Linnaea borealis L. – GrPl, Pa, W, Christenhusz (2013); > Linnaea borealis L. ssp. americana (J.Forbes) Hultén – K1, K3, K4, NE, Tn; > Linnaea borealis L. var. americana (J.Forbes) Rehder – F

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Wetland Indicator Status:

  • Eastern Mountains and Piedmont: FAC (name change)
  • Great Plains: FACU (name change)
  • Midwest: FAC (name change)
  • Northcentral & Northeast: FAC (name change)

Heliophily ?: 2

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image of plant© Alan Cressler: Linnaea borealis, Fern Lake Trail, Rocky Mountain National Park, Larimer County, Colorado 2 by Alan Cressler source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Erik Danielson source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Alan Cressler: Linnaea borealis, Fern Lake Trail, Rocky Mountain National Park, Larimer County, Colorado 1 by Alan Cressler source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Erik Danielson source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Erik Danielson source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Erik Danielson source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© J.W. Hardin | Original Image ⭷

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