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Viola emarginata (Nuttall) Leconte var. emarginata . Section: Nosphinium. Subsection: Borealiamericanae. Triangle-leaved Violet. Phen: Mar-May. Hab: Somewhat acidic, well-drained sandy soils in oak and oak-pine forests, and open sites along forest borders and roadsides adjacent to open woodlands. Dist: E. MA and s. NY (Long Island) south to w. NC, e. NC, and sw. GA.

Origin/Endemic status: Native

Taxonomy Comments: Submerged without recognition for the last 70 years, but recent studies demonstrate that it differs consistently in several morphological features from other members of the Sagittata group, as noted in the key. In the broad sense it represents a complex of potentially distinct locally or regionally endemic taxa (“entomophylla”, “deltate”, Viola emarginata sensu stricto and “Lower Midwest”). The first three inhabit dry open forest situations and forest borders and exhibit similar floral features, while “Lower Midwest” diverges in floral characters and lowland prairie habitat.

Synonymy: = Ballard, Kartesz, & Nishino (2023); < Viola emarginata (Nutt.) Leconte – S13, Tat; < Viola emarginata (Nutt.) Leconte var. emarginata – RAB; < Viola sagittata Aiton – Pa; < Viola sagittata Aiton var. sagittata – FNA6

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Wetland Indicator Status:

  • Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain: FACW (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Eastern Mountains and Piedmont: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Great Plains: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Midwest: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Northcentral & Northeast: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)

Heliophily: 5

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image of plant© George Chamuris | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© George Chamuris | Original Image ⭷

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