Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Key to Gentiana

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1 Flower solitary (rarely 2 or 3); corolla spotted within; leaves twisted, oblanceolate to oblinear; [subgenus Pneumonanthe, series Angustifoliae].
..2 Calyx lobes widest at base, the sides then parallel upward for a distance; corolla exterior intensely indigo blue; [of s. NJ and adjacent DE, and from se. VA south through e. NC to nc. SC]
..2 Calyx lobes widest above the base, narrowing upward and downward from that point; corolla exterior dull purplish-green; [of FL Panhandle]
1 Flowers clustered; corolla not spotted within; leaves planar, mostly lanceolate, elliptic, or ovate (rarely linear); subgenus Pneumonanthe, series Pneumonanthe].
....3 Calyx lobes keeled, the keel decurrent on the calyx tube, the margins of the lobes entire (as seen at 10×); corolla greenish-white or yellowish-white; leaves ovate to lanceolate, acuminate
....3 Calyx lobes not keeled, the margins of the lobes conspicuously ciliate (as seen at 10×, except entire to minutely denticulate in G. linearis and G. villosa); corolla white, greenish-white, or variously blue; leaves various.
......4 Corolla greenish-white (sometimes somewhat purplish); seeds wingless; lower leaves spatulate to obovate
......4 Corolla blue, purplish, pale blue, or nearly white; seeds winged; lower leaves linear, lanceolate, elliptic, or ovate.
........5 Margins of leaves and calyx lobes entire to minutely denticulate; corolla appendages obliquely triangular, broader than high (sometimes with a minute deflexed segment)
........5 Margins of leaves and calyx lobes conspicuously ciliate (as seen at 10×); corolla appendages with 2 teeth, as long as broad or longer (sometimes with a deflexed segment, if so, the deflexed segment about as long as the erect one).
..........6 Anthers separate at anthesis; outer surfaces of petals suffused with green; calyx lobes linear-subulate, about as long as the tube; corolla lobes 6-14 mm long, about 2× as long as the free portions of the corolla appendages
..........6 Anthers connate at anthesis; outer surfaces of petals not suffused with green; calyx lobes various; corolla lobes usually shorter.
............7 Calyx lobes linear-subulate, broadest at the base, 4× or more as long as broad, shorter than the densely puberulent calyx tube; stems densely puberulent; corolla appendages very unevenly bifid, the narrower segment often deflexed into the corolla tube
............7 Calyx lobes lanceolate, oblanceolate, ovate, or orbicular, 1-5× as long as broad, longer or shorter than the glabrous or puberulent calyx tube; stems glabrous or puberulent; corolla appendages subequally bifid, both segments erect.
..............8 Involucral and upper leaves obtuse to acute (rarely acuminate); calyx lobes lanceolate; corollas open to loosely closed.
................9 Leaves ovate, widest near the base, bright green; calyx lobes longer than the calyx tube; corolla lobes spreading, usually 2-4 mm longer than the appendages
................9 Leaves linear to elliptic, widest near the middle, dark green; calyx lobes shorter than or about equal to the calyx tube; corolla lobes usually incurved, rarely exceeding the appendages by > 2 mm
..............8 Involucral and upper leaves acuminate; calyx lobes ovate-orbicular; corollas tightly closed (rarely loosely closed to open).
..................10 Corolla lobes reduced to a minute mucro or triangular tooth (0.5-1.0 mm long), much exceeded by the corolla appendages in both length and width
..................10 Corolla lobes about as wide as the corolla appendages, and either about as long as or much exceeded by the corolla appendages in length.
....................11 Calyx tubes densely puberulent; calyx lobes lanceolate, erect or ascending; stems papillose-puberulent; filaments 7-12 mm long; corolla lobes 1.5-3 mm, often triangular, about 0.5-0.6× as wide as the corolla appendages
....................11 Calyx tubes glabrous; calyx lobes either widely elliptic, ovate, obovate, orbicular, or rhombic, spreading widely, or lanceolate and ascending; stems glabrous; filaments 8-15 mm long; corolla lobes 0.7-5.0 mm long, usually rounded, about as wide as the corolla appendages.
......................12 Calyx lobes lanceolate and ascending, > 2.5× as long as wide; filaments 8-12 mm long; corolla lobes 1.5-3 mm long, shorter than the corolla appendages; [IL and MO northwards and westwards]
......................12 Calyx lobes widely elliptic, ovate, obovate, orbicular, or rhombic, spreading widely, all or most of them < 2× as long as wide; filaments 10-15 mm long; corolla lobes either 0.7-2.0 mm or 2.5-5.0 mm long; [sw. NC and e. TN northwards, mainly Appalachian].
........................13 Calyx lobes widely obovate to orbicular, 2-10 mm; corolla lobes 0.7-2.0 mm; [sw. NC and e. TN northwards, mainly Appalachian]
........................13 Calyx lobes obovate, elliptic, ovate, orbicular, or rhombic, (3-) 5-25 (-35) mm; corolla lobes 2.5-5.0 mm; [Mountains of NC, south of Asheville]