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Key to Stachys

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1 Herbage softly and densely white (to gray)-woolly; [rare escapes and persisting from cultivation].
..2 Perennial; leaf blades heavily lanate, narrowed to the base, the teeth (if any) concealed by the felt; calyx lobes concealed by tomentum
..2 Biennial; leaf blades silky-pilose or tomentose, rounded to cordate at the base, obviously dentate; calyx lobes projecting beyond the pubescence
1 Herbage variously pubescent or glabrous, but never white-woolly; [collectively common, both natives and exotics].
....3 Bracts of inflorescence (and upper leaves) mucronate (the mucros sometimes inconspicuous, appearing as short, whitish or blonde pointed spines, clearly differentiated from the blade); calyx lobes nearly as long as the tube; [extreme s. TX]
....3 Bracts of inflorescence (and upper leaves) rounded to acute/pointed, not mucronate (or with mucros not clearly differentiated from the blade); calyx lobes, various, mostly clearly shorter than the tube
......4 Annuals from fibrous roots, typically freely branching from the base or from lower nodes; leaf blades 1-5 cm long, with rounded or obtuse apices (except acute to acuminate in S. annua); [exotics, except S. agraria].
........5 Leaves cuneate at base, acute to acuminate at tip; corolla 10-16 mm long (well exceeding the calyx); corolla mostly white, the lower lip yellow; upper corolla lip erect, the galea margin erose/crisped
........5 Leaves cordate or truncate at base, rounded or obtuse at tip; corolla 4-9 mm long (barely or not exceeding the calyx); corolla white to pink, the lower lip not yellow; upper corolla lip straight, the galea margin entire.
..........6 Calyx 3-5 mm long; corolla 4-6 mm long; [Gulf Coast (to Mexico) and scattered eastwards to FL and SC]
..........6 Calyx 7-9 mm long; corolla 7-9 mm long; [rare waif, mostly from ballast]
......4 Perennials from rhizomes, not branching in the lower portion (unless damaged); leaf blades often > 5 cm long, with acute apices; [natives, except S. floridana and S. palustris].
............ 7 Petioles (at least some of those of the principal stem leaves) > 1/5 as long as the blades.
............ ..8 Calyx strongly glandular with atomiferous glands or gland-tipped hairs, or both.
............ ....9 Calyx lobes narrowly lanceolate, about as long as the calyx tube; leaf blades lance-ovate to lanceolate, < 3 cm wide; stem angles glabrate to short retrorse pubescent; root tips with moniliform tubers; [native and weedy species, mostly of the Coastal Plain]
............ ....9 Calyx lobes deltoid to deltoid-lanceolate, shorter than the calyx tube; leaf blades broadly cordate-ovate, usually > 3 cm wide; stem angles hispid; roots without tubers; [native species of rich mountain forests].
............ ......10 Calyx lobes aristate, with a linear tip 1-2 mm long.
............ ........11 Stem faces eglandular; stem angles with spreading trichomes 1-3 mm long; leaves sparingly pubescent
............ ........11 Stem faces copiously atomiferous glandular; stem angles with pustulate based spreading trichomes 1-3 mm long; leaves atomiferous-glandular mixed with sparse eglandular trichomes
............ ......10 Calyx lobes angled or with linear portion < 1 mm long.
............ ..........12 Calyx lobes deltoid; leaves broadly rounded with a cordate base and crenulate margins
............ ............ ..14 Calyx hispidulous to strongly hispid with long, stiff, deflexed hairs; stem moderately to densely pubescent on the angles with hairs to 3 mm; leaves usually pubescent above (some forms glabrate); petioles rarely as much as 1-2 cm long
............ ............ ..14 Calyx glabrous to moderately pubescent with short, soft hairs; stem glabrous to moderately pubescent on the angles; leaves sparsely pubescent or glabrate; petioles well developed (1-3 cm long), especially in shade forms.
............ ............ ....15 Leaf blades ovate-oblong to elliptic; calyx lobes deltoid-acuminate to an apiculate tip, ½ to 2/3 as long as the calyx tube; bracts of the inflorescence usually conspicuous and only gradually reduced upward; plants generally more pubescent
............ ............ ....15 Leaf blades oblanceolate, oblong, or narrowly elliptic; calyx lobes lanceolate, usually recurved-spreading in fruit, about as long as the calyx tube; bracts of the inflorescence inconspicuous, rapidly reduced upward; plants generally glabrate
............ 7 Petioles < 1/5 as long as the blade or absent.
............ ............ ......16 Stem below the inflorescence glabrous on the sides (rarely with a few remote hairs and/or glands) or atomiferous-glandular only.
............ ............ ........17 Leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate or lance-elliptic, often widest below the middle, 3-15 (-20) mm wide; leaf margins entire to crenulate or serrulate.
............ ............ ..........18 Leaf blades broader, 5-15 (-19) mm wide, the margins crenulate to finely serrate; herbage glabrate to hispidulous to strongly pubescent
............ ............ ..........18 Leaf blades very narrow, 3-6 (-10) mm wide, the margins entire to obscurely crenulate; herbage glabrous to moderately pubescent
............ ............ ........17 Leaves ovate-oblong to elliptic, usually widest near the middle, (1.6-) 2.0-5.0 (-6.0) cm wide; leaf margins crenate to sharply serrate.
............ ............ ............ 19 Mature calyx lobes triangular deltoid and abruptly apiculate, less than half as long as the calyx tube.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaf margins serrulate or serrate; stem nodes not bearded (sometimes obscurely fine-hairy); stem angles with scattered, pustulate, short deflexed hairs; [high-elevation montane habitats]
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaf margins crenulate or crenate; stem nodes bearded; lower stem angles copiously pubescent with 3-celled spreading hairs; [low-elevation Piedmont and Coastal Plain habitats]
............ ............ ............ 19 Mature calyx lobes lanceolate or deltoid-acuminate to an apiculate tip, more than half as long as the calyx tube.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Calyx sparsely to moderately pubescent with short, soft hairs; stem angles moderately pubescent to nearly glabrous; leaves sparsely pubescent or glabrate; principal leaves on petioles 1 to 3 cm long; bracts of the inflorescence usually conspicuous and only gradually reduced upward, the cilia ± incurved-ascending
............ ............ ............ ....21 Calyx hispidulous to strongly hispid with long, stiff hairs; stem angles moderately to densely pubescent; leaves usually pubescent above (some forms glabrate); principal leaves usually subsessile, with very short petioles; bracts of the inflorescence usually inconspicuous and rapidly reduced upward; if conspicuous, bracts ciliate with long, stiffly spreading hairs.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Calyx lobes flaring at maturity, conspicuously glandular with long stipitate trichomes and shorter sessile and subsessile glandular hairs; stem faces with occasional glandular and/or eglandular trichomes
............ ............ ............ ......22 Calyx lobes straight at maturity, sparsely short glandular to eglandular; stem faces usually with a few atomiferous glands only
............ ............ ......16 Stem below the inflorescence pubescent on the sides, as well as the angles.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Corolla purple-red; midstem leaf bases commonly shallowly cordate, nearly clasping
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Corolla pink; midstem leaf bases rounded to broadly cuneate, hardly or not at all clasping.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Calyx lobes lanceolate, more than half as long as the tube; flowers 6 per verticil; stem hairs prevailing soft and spreading, a short level commonly overtopped by a uniformly taller canopy layer; calyx with soft hairs
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Calyx lobes lanceolate to-subulate; stem hairs with at least some stiff, eglandular; calyx usually with some stiff hairs.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Fully open flowers with flaring/recurved calyx lobes; [w. VA, w. NC, extreme e. TN]
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Fully open flowers with straight calyx lobes, scarcely flaring; [VA, KY, and MO northwards]
............ ............ ............ ........23 Calyx lobes deltoid, no more than half as long as the calyx tube (but longer in S. alabamica); flowers 6-8 per verticil.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Leaf blades oblong/lanceolate; lowest leaves obtuse at apex; leaves < 3 cm broad, to 4 cm long; blades and stems velvety; corolla white; flowers 6 per verticil; [restricted to Santee River delta SC]
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Leaf blades elliptic/ovate; lowest leaves acute at apex; leaves up to 5-8 cm broad, 8-18 (-20) cm long; corolla pink; flowers 6-10 per verticil; [absent from SC].
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Petioles of midstem leaves 10 mm long (or more); calyx lobes deltoid-lanceolate; stem and abaxial leaf surface sparingly to moderately glandular and with frequent soft eglandular hairs; [GA, TN, KY]
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Petioles of midstem leaves to 6 mm long; calyx lobes strongly deltoid; stem and abaxial leaf surface abundantly to densely atomiferous glandular and with some stiff eglandular hairs.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Calyx 3.4-5 mm long, lobes about as long as tube; lobe margins with abundant coarse, glandular trichomes; pedicels 1 mm or more
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Calyx 5-6 mm long lobes less than ½ length of tube; lobe margins pubescent with eglandular trichomes, or a few glandular trichomes; pedicels to 0.5 mm long, rarely longer
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Leaf blades ovate, margins crenate; lower leaf surface glandular, not densely so; [NC, VA, WV, MD]
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