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*Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaudichaud-Beaupré) Ching. Mariana Maiden Fern. Phen: Jan-Dec. Hab: Wet hammocks, cypress swamps, streamsides, moist forests, disturbed areas, increasingly invasive in natural habitats (especially in the southern parts of our area). Dist: Native of the Asian and African tropics. Leonard (1972) and Wyatt (2020) discussed the history of this species in the southeastern United States. Macrothelypteris torresiana continues to spread northward, and has been reported for KY (Gorman, Bruton, & Estes 2011) and IL (Mohlenbrock 2014).

Origin/Endemic status: Paleotropics

Synonymy: = Ar, Bah, ETx1, Fl1, FNA2, FoC, Il, K1, K3, K4, Meso1, Tn, TxFerns, WH3, Fawcett & Smith (2021), Smith & Kessler (2017); = Dryopteris setigera (Blume) Kuntze – S13, Sf, misapplied; = n/a – C, RAB; = Thelypteris torresiana (Gaudich.) Alston – Tx

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image of plant© Alan Cressler: Macrothelypteris torresiana (left), Dennstaedtia bipinnata (right), Seminole County, Florida 1 by Alan Cressler source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Alan Cressler: Macrothelypteris torresiana, Gola Creek, Pike County, Georgia 1 by Alan Cressler source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Alan Cressler: Macrothelypteris torresiana, Gola Creek, Pike County, Georgia 3 by Alan Cressler source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Alan Cressler: Macrothelypteris torresiana, Gola Creek, Pike County, Georgia 4 by Alan Cressler source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Erik Danielson source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Joey Shaw source | Original Image ⭷

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