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Viola sagittata Aiton. Section: Nosphinium. Subsection: Borealiamericanae. Arrowhead Violet. Phen: Chasmogamous flower May-Jul; chasmogamous fruit May-Jun (Aug); cleistogamous fruit Jul-Aug. Hab: Dry to moist forests and woodlands. Dist: MA west to MN, south to GA and e. TX.

ID notes: This species could be mistaken for a few heterophyllous violets in the Sagittata species group, namely V. emarginata, V. fimbriatula, and V. septemloba. It differs from V. emarginata in foliage indument ranging from glabrous to uniformly moderately spreading-hirtellous, petioles lacking wings, typically uniformly green leaves lacking a purple tinge on the lower leaf blade surface, and blades in summer fruit becoming sagittate to lance-triangular with 2 (-3) slender teeth or lobes at base on each side. It can be distinguished from V. fimbriatula by its glabrous to uniformly moderately spreading-hirtellous foliage and typically glabrous peduncle, erect leaves, unwinged petioles, eciliate sepals, and erect cleistogamous peduncle; and from its light to medium green nonsucculent foliage, short basal lateral teeth or lobes, smaller flowers, and smaller brown seeds. It differs from V. septemloba in its often spreading-hirtellous and nonsucculent foliage, short basal lateral teeth or lobes, smaller flowers, and smaller brown seeds.

Origin/Endemic status: Native

Synonymy: = GrPl, S, S13, Tat, Tx, W, WV, Ballard, Kartesz, & Nishino (2023), Gil-Ad (1997); = Viola sagittata Aiton var. sagittata – FNA6, K1, K3, K4, NE, Pa, Tn, Va, Ballard () (in prep), Haines (2001), McKinney & Russell (2002); ? Viola emarginata (Nutt.) Leconte – S; > Viola emarginata (Nutt.) Leconte var. acutiloba Brainerd – F, G, RAB; > Viola emarginata (Nutt.) Leconte var. emarginata – F, G, RAB; < Viola sagittata Aiton – Ar, C, Il, NcTx

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Wetland Indicator Status:

  • Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain: FACW (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Eastern Mountains and Piedmont: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Great Plains: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Midwest: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Northcentral & Northeast: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)

Heliophily: 7

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image of plant© Gary P. Fleming | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Erik Danielson source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Bruce A. Sorrie | Original Image ⭷

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