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Viola subsinuata Greene var. subsinuata . Section: Nosphinium. Subsection: Borealiamericanae. Wavy-leaved Violet. Phen: Apr-May; Apr-Jun (chasm.), May-Aug (cleist.). Hab: Rich, dry-mesic and dry upland forests, probably associated with mafic rocks. Dist: VT and c. PA south to NC, ne. AL, ne. MS and e. KY; slightly disjunct in e. OH (if these are not de novo hybrids involving V. baxteri) and in northern Piedmont from CT south to NJ.

Origin/Endemic status: Native

Taxonomy Comments: Formerly broadly delimited as highly polymorphic, but recent studies have shown this to be group of loosely morphologically similar homophyllous cut-leaved taxa, from which Viola baxteri, Viola species 1, and Viola species 4 have now been segregated. Potentially distinct taxa under study are the “Chapel Hill” and Viola subsinuata sensu stricto as presented in the key. Brainerd’s sole collection of a seemingly homophyllous cut-leaved violet from an unspecified location in FL is anomalous and well out of Appalachian/Western Allegheny Plateau distribution of the entire group. Populations outside the n. and c. Appalachian region require further study and may yield additional taxonomic diversity requiring recognition.

Synonymy: = Ballard, Kartesz, & Nishino (2023); = Viola subsinuata Greene – FNA6, Il, NE, Pa, Tn, Va, Ballard () (in prep), Haines (2001), McKinney & Russell (2002); < Viola ×subsinuata Greene – K4; > Viola palmata L. var. dilatata Elliott – Ballard () (in prep); < Viola palmata L. var. palmata – C; < Viola palmata L. var. triloba (Schwein.) Ging. ex DC. – RAB; > Viola subsinuata Greene – Ballard () (in prep); < Viola triloba Schwein. – Tat; ? Viola triloba Schwein. var. dilatata (Elliott) Brainerd – F, G, Il, K1, S13

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Wetland Indicator Status:

  • Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Eastern Mountains and Piedmont: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Great Plains: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Midwest: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Northcentral & Northeast: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)

Heliophily: 5

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image of plant© Eric M Powell, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC), uploaded by Eric M Powell source CC-BY-NC, permission granted to NCBG | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Eric M Powell, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC), uploaded by Eric M Powell source CC-BY-NC, permission granted to NCBG | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Armin Weise CC-BY | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Eric M Powell, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC), uploaded by Eric M Powell source CC-BY-NC, permission granted to NCBG | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Mark Kluge, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC), uploaded by Mark Kluge source CC-BY-NC, permission granted to NCBG | Original Image ⭷

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