Cirsium carolinianum (Walter) Fernald & Schubert. Phen: Apr-Jun (-Jul). Hab: Prairies and open woodlands, primarily over mafic, ultramafic, or calcareous rocks. Dist: N. VA west to s. OH and MO, south to w. SC, n. GA, AL, and TX. In the eastern part of the Southeast, C. carolinianum seems to be restricted to prairies and woodlands (or maintained powerline or road rights-of-way) over circumneutral rocks and soils, in situations which were oak savannas or even prairies prior to fire suppression.
Origin/Endemic status: Endemic
Synonymy: = Ar, C, F, FNA19, G, Il, K1, K3, K4, Oh3, Ok, SE1, Tn, Va, W; = Carduus carolinianus Walter – RAB; > Cirsium flaccidum Small – S; > Cirsium virginianum (L.) Michx. – S, misapplied