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Key to Ranunculaceae, Key C: Subkey in Ranunculaceae

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1 Leaflets linear, < 1.5 mm wide.
  2 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical; [subfamily Ranunculoideae, tribe Delphineae]
  2 Flowers radially symmetrical.
    3 Aquatic; [native]; [subfamily Ranunculoideae, tribe Ranunculeae]
    3 Terrestrial; [exotic].
      4 Flower closely subtended by a finely dissected involucre; pistils compound; [subfamily Ranunculoideae, tribe Nigelleae]
      4 Flower lacking involucre; pistils simple.
        5 Petals 8-15 mm long, red, purple, or orange; [subfamily Ranunculoideae, tribe Adonideae]
        5 Petals 3-5 mm long, yellow; [subfamily Ranunculoideae, tribe Ranunculeae]
1 Leaflets broader, rounded, lobed, or toothed.
          6 Leaves all cauline, opposite; stems somewhat woody at base; [subfamily Ranunculoideae, tribe Anemoneae]
          6 Leaves basal and cauline, the cauline alternate (or with opposite or whorled involucral bracts).
             7 Petals present, conspicuous
               8 Flowers dangling; petals red, orange with yellow, or blue, spurred; [subfamily Thalictroideae]
               8 Flowers not dangling; petals yellow, not spurred; [subfamily Ranunculoideae, tribe Ranunculeae]
             7 Petals absent or inconspicuous (soon deciduous or altered into a nectary-bearing clavate structure); sepals sometimes petaloid and conspicuous.
                 9 Sepals petaloid, conspicuous, white (or cream, rose, pink, or tinged with green).
                   10 Involucre absent, all leaves on the stem alternate; petaloid sepals 5, white; [subfamily Thalictroideae]
                   10 Involucre of opposite or whorled, leaflike bracts present; petaloid sepals (4-) 5-20 (-30), white, cream, rose, or green.
                     11 Basal leaves with 3-5 leaflets, these toothed or incised; petaloid sepals white, cream, rose, or green; [subfamily Ranunculoideae, tribe Anemoneae]
                     11 Basal leaves with > 5 leaflets; these with 0-3 rounded lobes at the tip; petaloid sepals white to pale pink; [subfamily Thalictroideae]
                 9 Sepals absent, or inconspicuous in comparison to the stamens or pistils.
                       12 Leaflets 3; flower solitary; [subfamily Coptidoideae]
                       12 Leaflets many; flowers many, in a panicle or raceme.
                          13 Inflorescence a raceme; [subfamily Ranunculoideae, tribe Cimicifugeae]

Key to Ranunculaceae, Key D: Subkey in Ranunculaceae

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1 Fruit a follicle or capsular (or fleshy and berrylike in some Actaea).
  2 Mature leaves > 4 dm wide; [subfamily Ranunculoideae, tribe Cimicifugeae]
  2 Mature leaves < 3 dm wide.
    3 Leaflets linear; [exotics].
      4 Flowers in a raceme, not subtended by an involucre; fruit follicular, each with a 1-2 mm long beak; [subfamily Ranunculoideae, tribe Delphineae]
      4 Flower solitary, subtended by a finely divided involucre; fruit a spherical capsule-like structure composed of 5 or 10 partially connate follicles, each follicle terminated by a linear beak 13-20 mm long; [subfamily Ranunculoideae, tribe Nigelleae]
    3 Leaflets broad, rounded; [mostly natives].
        5 Follicles borne on stipes, forming an umbel-like cluster; rhizomes yellow or orange; [subfamily Coptidoideae]
        5 Follicles sessile; rhizomes brown or tan; [subfamily Thalictroideae].
          6 Follicles 15-31 mm long, with beaks 7-18 mm long
          6 Follicles 3.5-6.5 mm long, with beaks 1.5-3 mm long
1 Fruit an achene.
             7 Leaves divided into numerous linear segments, all of which are < 1 mm wide.
               8 Plant aquatic (if leaves divided into numerous linear segments); [subfamily Ranunculoideae, tribe Ranunculeae]
               8 Plant terrestrial.
                 9 Achenes 3-5 mm long, glabrous, with a persistent beak 0.5-1 mm long; [subfamily Ranunculoideae, tribe Adonideae]
                 9 Achenes 1.6-2 mm long, tomentose, with a persistent beak 3.5-4.5 mm long; [subfamily Ranunculoideae, tribe Ranunculeae]
             7 Leaf segments rounded or cleft, > 1 mm wide.
                   10 Leaves cauline, opposite; [subfamily Ranunculoideae, tribe Anemoneae]
                   10 Leaves basal and/or cauline, cauline leaves (if present) alternate (leaflike involucral bracts sometimes present and opposite or whorled).
                     11 Leaflike involucral bracts present, opposite or whorled.
                       12 Achenes not ribbed or veined on lateral surfaces; leaf texture moderate to distinctly thick and leathery; [subfamily Ranunculoideae, tribe Anemoneae]
                       12 Achenes conspicuously ribbed or veined on lateral surfaces; leaf texture thin, delicate; [subfamily Thalictroideae]
                          13 Leaflets 3-many, if many the leaflets typically with teeth, or sharp lobes; [subfamily Ranunculoideae, tribe Ranunculeae]
                          13 Leaflets many, unlobed or typically with 3-9 rounded lobes; [subfamily Thalictroideae]
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