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Key to Aesculus

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1 Petals usually 5, white with a reddish mark near the cordate base of the petal blade; buds glutinous (sticky); fruit spiny; leaflets 7 (-9) per leaf; [exotic, uncommonly planted, rarely naturalized]; [section Aesculus]
1 Petals 4 (or 4-5 in A. parviflora), cream-colored, yellow, red; or white (and then lacking a red blaze); buds not glutinous; fruit smooth (or with some prickles in A. glabra var. glabra); leaflets 5 (-7) per leaf; [native].
  2 Petals white, unmarked with red; stamens exserted, 2-4× as long as the petals; inflorescence 2-5 dm long; [section Macrothyrsus]
  2 Petals cream-colored, yellow, or red; stamens included or exserted, 1-2× as long as the petals; inflorescence 1-2.5 dm long; [section Pavia].
    3 Stamens about 2× as long as the petals, well-exserted beyond the corolla; petals only slightly unequal in size; fruit spiny with short prickles (rarely essentially smooth).
      4 Leaflets on well-developed leaves mostly 7-11; leaflets 1-3 (-5) cm wide
      4 Leaflets on well-developed leaves mostly 5-7; leaflets (2-) 3-6 (-8) cm wide
    3 Stamens about 1× as long as the petals, included or barely exserted beyond the corolla; petals markedly unequal in size; fruit smooth.
        5 Petal margins stipitate-glandular; petals scarlet or yellow; fruits 3-6 cm in diameter.
          6 Petals yellow; [Edwards Plateau, TX, and immediately adjacent areas in TX]
          6 Petals red or yellowish red; [widespread in our region, both as a native and also cultivated]
        5 Petal margins villous, not glandular; petals yellow (or with salmon tint); fruits 2-8 cm in diameter.
             7 Calyx and pedicels stipitate-glandular; large tree; petiolules 2-3 (-4) mm long; fruits 5-8 cm in diameter
             7 Calyx and pedicels puberulent; shrub to small tree; petiolules 3-12 mm long; fruits 2-4 cm in diameter
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