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Key to Carex, [26ee] Section 22 Griseae: section Griseae (Oligocarpae)

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1 Culm bases brown.
..2 Leaf sheaths scabrous to hispidulous; perigynium beak (0.5-) 0.6-1.3 mm long
....3 Leaf blades, especially of overwintered leaves, glaucescent, papillose abaxially; perigynia (3.7-) 4.0-4.7 (-5.1) × 1.5-1.7 (-1.8) mm; longest terminal spikes (25-) 30-46 mm long; [of the Cumberland Plateau of n. AL]
....3 Leaf blades green, glabrous abaxially or sparsely hispidulous; perigynia (4.5-) 4.6- 5.6 (-6.2) × 1.9-2.2 (-2.3) mm; longest terminal spikes 14-34 (-42) mm long; [of ne. United States, south in our area to w. NC and w. VA]
..2 Leaf sheaths glabrous; perigynium beak 0-0.5 (-0.7) mm long
......4 Leaf blades glaucous; pistillate scales awnless or awn < 1 (-1.9) mm long.
........5 Perigynia (4.0-) 4.2-5.5 (-6.0) mm long; achene bodies 0.37-0.5× as long as the perigynia; pistillate spikes (5-) 5.7-8 (-9.6) mm wide; achene beak straight to bent less than 30° from the vertical
........5 Perigynia 3.2-4.5 (-4.7) mm; achene bodies 0.5-0.63 (-0.67)× as long as the perigynia; pistillate spikes (3.3-) 4.2-6.1 (-7.3) mm wide; achene beak usually bent 30-90° from vertical.
..........6 Perigynia 3.2-4.0 (-4.1) mm long, (1.5-) 1.8-2.3 (-2.5)× as long as wide; longest pistillate spike with (14-) 19-45 (-65) flowers, densely flowered, with the ratio [mm of spike length/number of flowers] = (0.56-) 0.67-1.1 (1.3); longest peduncle of staminate spike 0.5-15 (-31) mm long
..........6 Perigynia (3.7-) 3.9-4.5 (-4.7) mm long, (1.9-) 2.1-2.6 (-2.8)× as long as wide; longest pistillate spike with 11-25 (-28) flowers, rather loosely flowered, with the ratio [mm of spike length/number of flowers] = (0.97-) 1.0-1.3 (1.6); longest peduncle of staminate spike (1.5-) 7.5-37 (-62) mm long
......4 Leaf blades deep or light green; pistillate scales usually with awns (0-) 1.2-3.7 (-6) mm long.
............ 7 Peduncles of lateral spikes scaberulous; perigynia (6-) 18-37 (-86) per spike; perigynia (2.5-) 2.8-3.6 (-4.3) mm long, 17-25-veined
............ 7 Peduncles of lateral spikes glabrous or scaberulous; perigynia (3-) 5-16 (-19) per spike; perigynia (3.6-) 4-5 (-5.5) mm long, 40-65-veined
............ ..8 Widest leaf blades 2.6-4.0 mm wide; ligules of proximal bracts 0.4-1.8 (-3.6) mm long; perigynium apex bent; achene beaks bent
............ ..8 Widest leaf blades (3.7-) 4.2-8.2 (-9.1) mm wide; ligules of proximal bracts (1.8-) 4.0-10.7 (-12.9) mm long; perigynium apex straight; achene beaks straight.
............ ....9 Perigynia obtusely triangular in cross section, (2.2-) 2.5-3.1 × as long as wide, 1.5-1.9 (-2.2) mm wide; achenes (1.3-) 1.5-1.7 (-1.8) mm wide; achene stipes (0.3-) 0.4-0.6 mm long
............ ....9 Perigynia orbicular to suborbicular in cross section, 1.8-2.3 (-2.6)× as long as wide, (1.8-) 2-2.6 mm wide; achenes 1.7-2.1 (-2.2) mm wide; achene stipes (0.2-) 0.3-0.4 (-0.5) mm long
1 Culm bases purple-red
............ ......10 Plants not cespitose; rhizome internodes 2-3.4 mm thick; terminal spikes (2.8-) 3.3-4.5 (-5.4) mm wide, usually much exceeding the distal bract
............ ......10 Plants cespitose; rhizome internodes 1.2-2.2 mm thick; terminal spikes (0.9-) 1.3-2.9 (-3.1) mm wide, usually much exceeded by the distal bract
............ ........11 Perigynia spirally imbricate; proximal bracts with sheaths loose; ligules (0.9-) 2-12.9 mm
............ ..........12 Culm bases with purple-red to (3.4-) 4.0-7.3 cm high; widest leaf blades 2.4-4.0 (-5.3) mm wide; achene stipes 0.6-0.8 (-0.9) mm long
............ ..........12 Culm bases with purple-red to 0.3-2.4 (-7.3) cm high; widest leaf blades 3.3-8.0 (-9.1) mm wide; achene stipes (0.2-) 0.3-0.6 mm long.
............ ............ 13 Perigynia (1.8-) 2.0-2.6 mm wide, orbicular to suborbicular in cross section; achene bodies (2.6-) 3.1-3.5 (-3.7) mm long; achene stipes (0.2-) 0.3-0.4 (-0.5) mm; achene bodies 4.8-9.7 (-12)× as long as the stipes
............ ............ 13 Perigynia 1.5-2.3 (-2.4) mm wide, obtusely triangular in cross section; achene bodies 1.8-2.3 (-2.4) mm long; achene stipes (0.3-) 0.4-0.6 mm; achene bodies 3.2-5.8 (-7.3)× as long as the stipes.
............ ............ ..14 Perigynia 4.2-5.0 (-5.2) × 1.5-1.9 (-2.2) mm, (2.2-) 2.5-3.1× as long as wide; achene bodies broadly obovoid to oblong-obovoid, widest at a point 0.55-0.67 (-0.70) from base to tip of body
............ ............ ..14 Perigynia (3.6-) 3.9-4.5 (-4.7) × (1.7-) 1.8-2.3 (-2.4) mm, 1.8-2.3 (-2.5)× as long as wide; achene bodies broadly obdeltoid-obovoid, widest at a point (0.6-) 0.65-0.80 from base to tip of body
............ ........11 Perigynia distichously imbricate; proximal bracts with sheaths tight; ligules 4-4.9 (-9.6) mm (to 2.2 mm in C. bulbostylis).
image of plant
Show caption*© Aidan Campos, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC), uploaded by Aidan Campos
............ ............ ....15 Perigynia much inflated, orbicular or suborbicular in cross section, (1.8-) 2.0-2.5 (-2.8) mm wide, 1.6-2.0 (-2.1)× as long as wide
............ ............ ....15 Perigynia tightly enveloping achene or slightly inflated, obtusely triangular in cross section, 1.4-2.1 (-2.3) mm wide, (1.7-) 2.1-3.3× as long as wide.
............ ............ ......16 Plants loosely cespitose; longer rhizome internodes 7-58 mm long
............ ............ ......16 Plants densely cespitose; longer rhizomes internodes 0.2-6 (-8) mm long.
............ ............ ........17 Proximal bracts with bases of blades white between veins (most easily seen on abaxial surface)
............ ............ ........17 Proximal bracts with bases of blades uniformly green
............ ............ ..........18 Perigynia (1.7-) 2.1-2.6× as long as wide, apex usually abruptly contracted; beak (0.3-) 0.5-1.2 mm long; longest lateral spike with 2-8 (-10) perigynia (including undeveloped or aborted ones)
............ ............ ............ 19 Proximalmost spike usually considerably beyond base of culm; longest vegetative shoot 0.88-1.4× as long as the longest culm; proximal bracts with sheath front convex and elongated (0.8-) 1.1-4.0 mm beyond apex
............ ............ ............ 19 Proximalmost spike usually basal; longest vegetative shoot (0.8-) 1.4-4.4× as tall as the culms; proximal bracts with sheath front apices concave or truncate.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Culm bases with purple-red extending 2.7-5.2 (-5.6) cm; bodies of pistillate scales (2.2-) 2.5-3.0 mm long; achene beaks (0.1-) 0.2-0.3 mm long
............ ............ ............ ..20 Culm bases with purple-red extending (3.7-) 4.7-11.7 cm; bodies of pistillate scales 1.5-2.1 (-2.5) mm long; achene beaks 0.05-0.10 (-0.15) mm long
............ ............ ..........18 Perigynia (2.4-) 2.5-3.3× as long as wide, apex gradually tapering; beakless or the beak 0.1-0.4 mm; longest lateral spike with (5-) 7-14 perigynia (including undeveloped or aborted ones)
............ ............ ............ ....21 Perigynia (1.9-) 2.0-2.3× as long as the achene bodies; achene beaks (0.3-) 0.4-0.7 mm long
............ ............ ............ ....21 Perigynia 1.7-2.0× as long as the achene bodies; achene beaks 0.1-0.3 (-0.4) mm long.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Longest (per plant) peduncle of terminal spike 0.9-3.2 (-6.8) cm long; two distalmost lateral spikes usually overlapping; longest vegetative shoot 1.4-2.2× as tall as the longest culm
............ ............ ............ ......22 Longest (per plant) peduncle of terminal spike (2.2-) 5.1-8.9 (-10.4) cm long; two distalmost lateral spikes usually widely separate or occasionally overlapping; longest vegetative shoot 0.5-1.3× as tall as the longest culm
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