Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

Colors

Data mode

Key to Festuca

1 Plant annual; stamen 1.
..2 First glume < ½ as long as the second glume
..2 First glume > ½ as long as the second glume.
....3 Lemma pubescent; lowest lemma 2.5-3.5 mm long; grains 1.5-2 mm long
....3 Lemma glabrous or scabrous; lowest lemma 2.7-7 mm long; grains 1.7-3.3 mm long.
......4 First glume 1.7-4.5 mm long; lemma awns 3-12 mm long; spikelets with 4-7 loosely imbricate florets; rachilla internodes mostly 0.9-1.1 mm long
......4 First glume 3.5-5 mm long; lemma awns 0.3-6 (-9) mm long; spikelets with 5-11 (-more) closely imbricate florets; rachilla internodes mostly 0.5-0.7 mm long.
........5 Spikelets 5.5-10 (-13) mm long; awn of the lowest lemma 3-9 mm long
........5 Spikelets 4-5.5 (-6.5) mm long; awn of the lowest lemma 0.3-3 mm long
1 Plant perennial; stamens 3.
..........6 Leaves 0.2-3 mm wide, often involute.
............7 Plant loosely tufted, often rhizomatous; basal sheaths disintegrating into fibers; spikelets 6-13 mm long
............7 Plant tufted, lacking rhizomes; basal sheaths persistent, remaining firm and entire; spikelets 3-9 mm long.
..............8 Lemmas 2.3-4.0 (-4.4) mm long, awnless, or with a minute projection to 0.4 mm long; anther 1.5-2.2 (-2.5) mm long; spikelets 3.0-6.0 (-6.5) mm long
..............8 Lemmas 3.8-5.5 mm long, with an awn 0.5-2.5 mm long; anther (2.3-) 2.5-3.0 mm long; spikelets 5.5-9.0 mm long
..........6 Leaves 3-12 mm wide, flat.
................9 Larger lemmas 5.5-10 mm long; leaf blades auriculate at the base; anthers 2-4 mm long
..................10 Auricles ciliate (sometimes only very sparsely so – check several at 10-20× magnification); spikelets with 3-6 (-9) florets; old sheaths pale straw-colored, often remaining intact; internodes of the rachilla antrorsely scabrous
..................10 Auricles glabrous; spikelets with (2-) 4-10 (-12) florets; old sheaths brown, decaying to fibers; internodes of the rachilla glabrous (smooth) or nearly so
................9 Larger lemmas 3.3-5.2 mm long; leaf blades not auriculate at the base; anthers 0.8-1.5 mm long; [subgenus Subulatae, section Obtusae].
....................11 Ligules 2-9 mm long; [rare introduction]
....................11 Ligules 0.1-1.5 (-2) mm long; [common natives].
......................12 Principal lowermost panicle branches with 8-20 spikelets clustered at the end; spikelets broadly ovate, 4-6 mm wide
......................12 Principal lowermost panicle branches with 2-7 spikelets scattered along the outer half; spikelets narrowly ovate, 2-4 mm wide

Key to Lolium

1 Inflorescence paniculate (spikelets borne on branches off the central axis, not 2-ranked).
..2 Auricles ciliate (sometimes only very sparsely so – check several at 10-20× magnification); spikelets with 3-6 (-9) florets; old sheaths pale straw-colored, often remaining intact; internodes of the rachilla antrorsely scabrous
..2 Auricles glabrous; spikelets with (2-) 4-10 (-12) florets; old sheaths brown, decaying to fibers; internodes of the rachilla glabrous (smooth) or nearly so
1 Inflorescence spikelike (spikelets sessile on the central axis, 2-ranked).
....3 Glumes (12-) 15-25 mm long, subcoriaceous, equaling or surpassing the uppermost lemma (therefore the length of the spikelet); florets 4-9 per spikelet; annual
....3 Glumes 4-12 mm long, herbaceous, shorter than the lemmas (therefore shorter than the spikelet); florets (2-) 5-22 per spikelet; annual or perennial.
......4 Lemmas (at least the upper) awned, the awns to 15 mm long; florets 11-22 per spikelet; annual or perennial
......4 Lemmas awnless; florets (2-) 5-10 per spikelet; perennial