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1 Terminal leaflet deeply cordate, mostly > 12 cm wide, with 7-9 major veins arising palmately from the base; principal leaves with 3-9 (-17) leaflets; [section Oligocarpae]
..2 Carpels 3-8, on a stipe elongating to 5-8 mm long in fruit; flowering Jul-Sep; petiole of basal leaves with a deep, broad groove (ca. 1 mm wide and 1 mm deep), persistent on fully expanded leaves; roots with vascular tissue in lunate bundles arranged in a circle; [section Podocarpae]
....3 Fruit dry, follicular, dehiscent; flowering May-Aug
......4 Fruiting pedicels thick, 1-2 mm in diameter; fruit white (rarely red); stigma wider than ovary (in flower); leaflets usually glabrous across the lower surface; [widespread in our area]
......4 Fruiting pedicels slender, 0.4-0.7 mm in diameter; fruit red (rarely white); stigma narrower than ovary (in flower); leaflets usually pubescent across the lower surface; [northern, south to NJ, PA, OH, IN, and IL]