Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

Colors

Data mode

Account

Login
Sign up

Key J2: woody angiosperms with opposite, simple leaves with toothed margins {add [Abelia] CAPRIFOLIACEAE}

Click the number at the start of a key lead to highlight both that lead and its corresponding lead. Click again to show only the two highlighted leads. Click a third time to return to the full key with the selected leads still highlighted.

1 Leaves evergreen.
..2 Plant a shrub, erect, not requiring support.
....3 Leaves with spiny margins
....3 Leaves with crenate or serrate margins.
......4 Leaves slightly to strongly fleshy; inflorescence a head; [maritime situations]
 Iva
......4 Leaves not fleshy; inflorescence either a head or otherwise; [collectively widespread].
........5 Leaves > 8 cm long, typically spotted with yellow, coarsely toothed; fruit a red drupe; [commonly cultivated, rarely seeding down nearby]
........5 Leaves < 8 cm long, not yellow-spotted, serrulate; fruit a capsule or purplish drupe; [plants native or cultivated].
..........6 Inflorescence a head; [s. FL]
..........6 Inflorescence otherwise; [more widespread].
............7 {XXXX}
............7 {YYYY}
..............8 {ZZZZ}
..............8 {AAAA}
..2 Plant a subshrub, creeping shrub, or liana.
................9 Leaves spinose-serrate; [aliens, rarely naturalized]
................9 Leaves serrate (not spinose), serrulate, or crenate; [aliens and natives, collectively widespread].
..................10 Leaves slightly to strongly fleshy; inflorescence a head; [maritime situations]
 Iva
..................10 Leaves not fleshy; inflorescence otherwise; [collectively widespread].
....................11 Leaves on vigorous shoots with a few coarse rounded teeth towards the base (most leaves entire)
....................11 Leaves serrulate to serrate, the teeth uniformly around the margin or concentrated towards the tip; fruit dry, either indehiscent and 1-seeded or capsular and with several seeds.
......................12 Flowers 5-merous; petals fused; fruit indehiscent, 1-seeded; [montane, from e. TN, WV, and w. MD northwards in our area]
......................12 Flowers 4- or 5-merous; petals separate; fruit capsular, dehiscent, several-seeded; [collectively widespread in our area]
1 Leaves deciduous.
........................13 Leaves slightly to strongly fleshy; inflorescence a head, subtended by an involucre of phyllaries; [maritime situations]
 Iva
........................13 Leaves not fleshy; inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above (sometimes the flowers in a head subtended by bracts, but then with other features differing, such as stamens 4, or green calyx present, or petals separate, or fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, etc.); [collectively widespread].
..........................14 Lianas climbing by twining or by adventitious roots.
............................15 Stems with retrorse prickles; foliage scabrous
............................15 Stems not prickly; foliage smooth to variously hairy, but not scabrous.
..............................16 Leaves on vigorous shoots with a few coarse rounded teeth towards the base (most leaves entire), the larger leaves < 3 cm wide; lianas climbing by twining; fruit a fleshy berry; flowers 5-merous, with a fused, tubular corolla
..............................16 Leaves serrate, the teeth towards the leaf apex, the larger leaves > 4 cm wide; lianas climbing by adventitious roots; fruit a capsule; flowers 7-10-merous, with separate petals
..........................14 Upright shrubs or trees, lacking any adaptations for climbing.
................................17 Trees; leaves often a mix of alternate and opposite.
..................................18 Leaves harshly scabrous on the upper surface; fruit a multiple of achenes; leaf venation pinnate but irregular
..................................18 Leaves not scabrous; fruit a 2-4-seeded drupe; leaf venation neatly pinnate, the lateral veins nearly straight and parallel to one another
................................17 Shrubs or trees; leaves strictly opposite (or often a mix of alternate and opposite in RHAMNACEAE).
....................................19 Trees; leaves palmately-veined, with 5 or more veins from the base; [rarely naturalizing]
....................................19 Shrubs; leaves either triple-veined from near the base or pinnate-veined; [collectively widespread and common]
......................................20 Leaves strongly triple-veined from at or near the base of the blade, the 2 lateral veins arching towards the tip and rejoining the midvein or nearly so (becoming diffuse before rejoining); petals 4, white; stamens 15-90
......................................20 Leaves pinnate-veined; petals various, not both 4 and white (except sometimes in Hydrangea); stamens 1-15 (except 15-30 in Exochorda in ROSACEAE).
........................................21 Inflorescence head-like; flowers sympetalous and 4-lobed; fruit 2 seeded
........................................21 Inflorescence more diffuse, with internal axes and pedicels; flowers not both sympetalous and 4-lobed (except in Forsythia and Buddleja); fruit 1-seeded, 2-4-seeded, or 4-many-seeded.
..........................................22 Plants in flower.
............................................23 Corolla absent; flowers inconspicuous and small, in axillary fascicles or catkins.
..............................................24 Flowers in catkins; leaves usually a mix of opposite and alternate
..............................................24 Flowers in axillary fascicles; leaves strictly opposite (subopposite)
............................................23 Corolla present; flowers larger, in terminal cymes, corymbs, racemes, panicles, or in axillary cymes or fascicles.
................................................25 Petals separate; stamens 8-10 (-60) (or 4-6 in RHAMNACEAE and Euonymus in CELASTRACEAE).
..................................................26 Flowers 1-few, in axillary cymes; stamens 4-6; stems brown, tan, gray, or green.
....................................................27 Leaf venation pinnate, but irregular and reticulated; stems green
....................................................27 Leaf venation neatly pinnate, the lateral veins nearly straight and parallel to one another; stems brown, tan, or gray
..................................................26 Flowers 1 and terminal, or many, in terminal panicles or corymbs; stamens 8-10 (-60); stems brown, tan or gray.
......................................................28 Inflorescence a solitary, terminal flower; stamens 30-60
......................................................28 Inflorescence a terminal panicle or corymb; stamens 8-15
................................................25 Petals fused, at least basally, and often strongly tubular; stamens 2, 4, or 5.
........................................................29 Stamens 5.
..........................................................30 Petals white, fused basally only, the lobes spreading
..........................................................30 Petals pink, yellow, or reddish, fused for most of their length
........................................................29 Stamens 2 or 4.
............................................................31 Stamens 2; petals yellow; flowers radially symmetrical; inflorescence an axillary fascicle
............................................................31 Stamens 4; petals white, pink, or lavender; flowers bilabiate; inflorescence a terminal thyrse or panicle or an axillary cyme.
..............................................................32 Petals 4; inflorescence a terminal thyrse
..............................................................32 Petals 5; inflorescence a terminal panicle or an axillary cyme.
................................................................33 Inflorescence an axillary cyme
................................................................33 Inflorescence a terminal panicle
..........................................22 Plants in fruit.
..................................................................34 Fruit a drupe or achene, indehiscent, fleshy at maturity (or dry in Kolkwitzia).
....................................................................35 Fruit an achene (1-seeded), dry at maturity
....................................................................35 Fruit a drupe (1-4 seeded), fleshy at maturity.
......................................................................36 Inflorescence a terminal corymb
......................................................................36 Inflorescence axillary, fascicled or a cyme.
........................................................................37 Foliage with stellate hairs; fruit a pink-purple 4-seeded drupe
........................................................................37 Foliage glabrous or with simple hairs; fruit a dark red, black, or blue 1-4-seeded drupe.
..........................................................................38 Fruit a 1-seeded drupe; [NC southwards and westwards]
..........................................................................38 Fruit a 2-4-seeded drupe; [widespread in our region]
..................................................................34 Fruit a capsule, dehiscent, dry at maturity.
............................................................................39 Inflorescence a catkin, the flowers small (< 5 mm in diameter) and tightly arranged on the inflorescence axis (>5 per cm of the axis)
............................................................................39 Inflorescence various, but more diffuse, the flowers larger (> 5 mm in diameter, except for some flowers in Hydrangea in HYDRANGEACEAE) and loosely arranged (< 5 per cm of axis).
..............................................................................40 Capsule prominently 5-angled (star-shaped in ×-section)
..............................................................................40 Capsule not angled.
................................................................................41 Inflorescence axillary, fascicled.
..................................................................................42 Capsule pink to red; fruits solitary or in axillary cymes
..................................................................................42 Capsule brown; fruits in axillary fascicles
................................................................................41 Inflorescence terminal, a raceme, panicle, corymb, or compound cyme.
....................................................................................43 Inflorescence a flat-topped corymb or rounded compound cyme, as wide as or wider than long
....................................................................................43 Inflorescence elongated, a raceme or panicle, longer than wide.
......................................................................................44 Capsule elongate (>3× as long as wide), 8-25 mm long
......................................................................................44 Capsule about as long as wide, 3-6 mm long.
........................................................................................45 {XXXX}
........................................................................................45 {YYYY}

Key to Sageretia

Click the number at the start of a key lead to highlight both that lead and its corresponding lead. Click again to show only the two highlighted leads. Click a third time to return to the full key with the selected leads still highlighted.

1 Leaf apices acute to acuminate; primary axes of inflorescences 5-15 cm long
1 Leaf apices acute to obtuse or wounded; primary axes of inflorescences 2-5 cm long