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Key to Allium

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1 Leaves appearing before the flowers and withering before anthesis; leaves lanceolate to elliptic (the margins not parallel for most of the length), mostly > 2 cm wide; [subgenus Rhizirideum].
..2 Leaves (1.5-) 2-4 (-4.5) cm wide, without a distinct petiolar base, the basal portion white; flowers (6-) 10-18 (-25) per umbel (fruits often fewer by abortion); spathe bracts 1-2 cm long; fruiting pedicels (8-) 10-15 (-18) mm long
..2 Leaves (3-) 5-8 (-9) cm wide, with a distinct petiolar base, the petioles usually red or pink; flowers (15-) 30-55 (-63) per umbel (fruits often fewer by abortion); spathe bracts 2-3 cm long; fruiting pedicels (10-) 15-25 (-30) mm long
1 Leaves present at flowering; leaves linear (the margins parallel for most of the length), mostly < 2 cm wide.
....3 Leaves cylindric (round or channeled-indented in cross section), hollow.
......4 Stem stout, usually > 10 mm in diameter; peduncles with a distinct swollen portion
......4 Stem slender, < 5 mm in diameter; peduncles without a distinct swollen portion; [subgenus Allium]
........5 Stems solitary, 3-10 dm tall; pedicels longer than the flowers
........5 Stems clustered, 1-3 dm tall; pedicels shorter than the flowers.
..........6 Scape 1-2 dm tall; leaves basal, 1-2 mm in diameter
..........6 Scape 2-5 dm tall; leaves cauline and basal, 2-4 mm in diameter
....3 Leaves variously flattened or keeled (flat or V-shaped in cross section), not hollow.
............ 7 Stem leafy for 1/5-2/3 its length; [subgenus Allium].
............ ..8 Inflorescence of flowers only; leaves 0.5-4.5 cm wide.
............ ....9 Tepals 4-5.5 mm long, white, pink, or purplish-red
............ ....9 Tepals7-12 mm long, white
............ ..8 Inflorescence of bulblets (and often flowers as well); leaves 0.2-4.5 cm wide.
............ ......10 Leaves 2-4 mm wide; bulbs simple at maturity; involucral bracts 2
............ ......10 Leaves 6-12 mm wide; bulbs compound at maturity (with separable cloves); involucral bract 1
............ 7 Stem scapose, leafy only at its base (lowermost 1/4 or less of stem); leaves < 1.4 cm wide; [subgenus Amerallium].
............ ........11 Inflorescence nodding, the peduncle bent 30-150 degrees in its uppermost several cm (at least in bud – in A. stellatum becoming erect in flower or fruit).
............ ..........12 Flowers stellate, the tepals spreading; scape nodding in bud, becoming erect in flower or fruit; bulb ovoid
............ ..........12 Flowers urceolate, campanulate, to nearly rotate, the tepals strongly to slightly incurved; scape nodding (or at least turned to the side) in bud, flower, and fruit; bulb elongate.
............ ............ 13 Perianth urceolate, deep magenta-purple; tepals obtuse; [plants of moderate to high elevations in the Mountains]
............ ............ 13 Perianth campanulate to nearly rotate, pink, pale pink, or nearly white; sepals acute (obtuse in A. oxyphilum); [of moderate to low elevations in the Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain].
............ ............ ..14 Plants flowering late Aug-early Oct; tepals 6-9 mm long, pale pink to nearly white; leaves moderately to strongly keeled in cross section (the angle between the two lower flat faces generally 90-135 degrees), 4-12 mm wide; [of calcareous wet savannas of the outer Coastal Plain]
............ ............ ..14 Plants flowering Jun-early Aug; tepals 5-6.5 mm long, pink to pale pink (white to greenish white in A. oxyphilum); leaves rounded to moderately keeled in cross section (if keeled, the angle between the two lower flat faces generally 120-165 degrees), 2-8 mm wide; [of the Piedmont and Mountains].
............ ............ ....15 Pedicels relatively slender, 2-4 cm long; tepals greenish white to white; plants flowering Aug; [of barrens developed over strongly acid shales in e. WV]
............ ............ ....15 Pedicels relatively stout, 1.6-3 cm long; tepals pink or pale pink (sometimes nearly white); plants flowering Jun to early Aug; [widespread in our area, on moderately to strongly calcareous substrates]
............ ............ ......16 Tepals light pink to medium pink, the outer and inner similarly disposed, widely ascending; leaves pale green, glaucous; [in rocky woodlands, bluffs, barrens, over calcareous or mafic substrates, more widespread in our region]
............ ............ ......16 Tepals medium pink to dark pink, the outer 3 spreading, the inner 3 erect-ascending; leaves medium to dark green, not at all glaucous; [in seasonal seepage in calcareous glades, Interior Low Plateau and adjacent areas]
............ ............ ........17 Ovary or capsule crested with projections about 1 mm long; tepals acuminate.
............ ............ ..........18 Ovary crests erect and straight; leaves 2
............ ............ ..........18 Ovary crests contorted or spreading; leaves 3 or more.
............ ............ ............ 19 Spathe bracts 1-nerved; ovary crests plane, flattened, spreading; tepals spreading; leaves 1-2 mm wide
............ ............ ............ 19 Spathe bracts usually 5-nerved; ovary crests contorted, ascending; tepals reflexed; leaves 3-10 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ..20 Stems 1.5-5.1 dm tall; stems 1.5-3.8 mm wide at 1 cm above the bulb; perianth white or very pale pink; capsules smaller, the seeds 1.8-2.0 and not dimpled; [of longleaf pine sandhills and other dry sandy Coastal Plain habitats and acid thin soils over granite in the eastern Piedmont from SC southwards]
............ ............ ............ ..20 Stems 4-8 dm tall; stems 3-7.5 mm wide above the bulb; perianth medium pink; capsules larger, the seeds 2.4-3.0 mm and somewhat rugose-dimpled; [of granite domes in the Brushy Mountains of nw. NC]
............ ............ ............ ......22 Outer bulb coats membranous, not appearing as a reticulate mesh of persistent fibers; [s. and se. TX]
............ ............ ............ ......22 Outer bulb coats reticulate-fibrous, appearing as a mesh of persistent fibers; [collectively widespread].
............ ............ ............ ........23 Perianth urceolate, continuing to surround the developing capsule; outer bulb coats of a very coarse, reticulate mesh; [s. TX]
............ ............ ............ ........23 Perianth spreading, withering as the capsule develops; outer bulb coats of a fine or moderately fine reticulate mesh; [collectively widespread]
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Flowers stellate (the tepals somewhat to widely divergent, not surrounding the capsule when withering).
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Aerial portion of stem 10-30 (-50) cm long; pedicels very slender, 2-4× as long as the flowering perianth
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Aerial portion of stem 20-60 cm long; pedicels slender to slightly thickened, 3-5× as long as the flowering perianth
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Umbels of 5-25 flowers; pedicels 3-4× as long as the flowering perianth; tepals thick
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Umbels of >25 flowers; pedicels 2-5× as long as the flowering perianth; tepals thin
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