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Lithospermum caroliniense (Walter ex J.F. Gmelin) MacMillan. Coastal Plain Puccoon. Phen: Apr-Jun. Hab: Longleaf pine sandhills, other dry sandy soils. Dist: A Southeastern Coastal Plain endemic: se. SC south to Panhandle FL, and west to AR and TX; disjunct in se. VA. The disjunction from SC to se. VA, skipping over large amounts of apparently suitable sandhill habitat in NC, is surprising.

Origin/Endemic status: Endemic

Taxonomy Comments: The sibling taxa L. caroliniense and L. croceum have been variously treated as distinct species, subspecies, or varieties, or as mere forms (see synonymy). Cusick (1985) discusses them and concludes that "the two taxa are similar, but distinctive, and their geographic distributions are almost exclusive". They appear to be as clearly separable as L. caroliniense is from L. canescens; I regard them as allopatric species.

Synonymy: = Ar, F, NcTx, Tx, Va; = Batschia caroliniensis Walter ex J.F.Gmel. – S; = Lithospermum carolinense ssp. carolinense – Cusick (1985); = Lithospermum caroliniense (Walter ex J.F.Gmel.) MacMill. var. caroliniense – C, K1, K3, K4; > Lithospermum bejariense A.DC.; < Lithospermum carolinense – GrPl, orthographic error; < Lithospermum caroliniense (Walter ex J.F.Gmel.) MacMill. – Fl5, G, RAB, WH3, Al-Shehbaz (1991)

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Heliophily ?: 9

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image of plant© Alan M. Cressler | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Floyd A. Griffith | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Gary P. Fleming | Original Image ⭷

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