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Frangula P. Miller. Buckthorn.

Key to Frangula

A genus of ca. 50 species, shrubs and small trees, of the northern hemisphere. The distinctions between Frangula and Rhamnus s.l. are many and meaningful; their separation at the generic level seems warranted based on morphological and molecular analyses (Richardson et al. 2000a; Bolmgren & Oxelman 2004; Hauenschild et al. 2016a, 2016b).

Ref: Bolmgren & Oxelman (2004); Brizicky (1964a); Hauenschild et al. (2016a); Hauenschild et al. (2016b); Medan & Schirarend In Kubitzki et al. (2004); Nesom in FNA (in prep.); Richardson et al. (2000a); Sawyer & Nesom (2016) In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Show full citations.

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image of plant© Alan Cressler: Frangula caroliniana (Rhamnus caroliniana), Sauta Cave National Wildlife Refuge, Jackson County, Alabama 2 by Alan Cressler | Frangula caroliniana source | Original Image ⭷