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Key to Solidago, Key D: Key to "rugosa goldenrods" -- with pinnately-veined stem leaves dominant and well-developed paniculiform inflorescences [subgenus Pleiactila; section Venosae]

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1 Larger leaves 1-2× as long as wide, 2-7 cm wide; [IL & MO south to AR]; [subgenus Pleiactila, section Venosae, subsection Drummondiani]
1 Larger leaves 2-5+× as long as wide, 0.6-4 cm wide; [collectively widespread]
  2 Leaf venation not notably reticulate; plants to 12 dm tall, from a compact caudex; [subgenus Pleiactila, section Venosae, subsection Ulmifoliae].
    3 Leaves sparsely hirsute below, at least on the midvein and larger lateral veins
  2 Leaves pinnately veined and also forming a prominent reticulum, the veins (primary, secondary, and tertiary) very evidently raised on the undersurface (less obviously so in S. fistulosa); plants to 30 (-40) dm tall, from long-creeping rhizomes, thus forming clonal patches; [subgenus Pleiactila, section Venosae, subsection Venosae].
      4 Mid-stem leaves sessile, somewhat clasping; leaf margins nearly entire to obscurely serrulate; leaves planar
      4 Mid-stem leaves subsessile, not clasping; leaf margins strongly serrate; leaves rugose.
        5 Involucres 4-6 mm high; broader phyllaries 0.7-1.2 mm wide; stems glabrous below the inflorescence; mid-stem leaves elliptic (widest near the middle)
        5 Involucres (2-) 2.5-3.5 (4.5) mm high; phyllaries mostly < 0.5 mm wide; stems hairy or glabrous below the inflorescence; mid-stem leaves lanceolate to ovate (widest below the middle).
          6 Leaves relatively thin, not very rugose, usually sharply serrate, the apices acuminate, glabrous or soft-hairy on the surfaces; rays (4-) 5-12 (-13).
             7 Stem glabrous throughout (except for scattered hairs in inflorescence), stem with striate ridges decurrent from leaf bases; leaf blades appressed serrate (teeth short), blades glabrous beneath except for sparse, short, appressed, straight hairs; early blooming (1 month earlier than S. rugosa in same area); [permanently saturated, ± forested wetlands with Sphagnum moss, such as red maple-Atlantic white cedar swamps, streamhead pocosins, montane bogs]
             7 Stem pubescent with crinkly hairs throughout (occasional plants varying to glabrate below), stem without striate ridges decurrent from leaf bases; leaf blades sharply serrate (teeth coarse), blades villous to crinkly hairy beneath; late blooming (ca. 1 month later than S. aestivalis in same area); [dry to moist fields, meadows, and other open habitats]
          6 Leaves relatively thick and firm, strongly rugose, usually subentire to bluntly serrate, the apices often only acute, slightly to strongly scabrous or stiffly-hairy on the surfaces; rays 4-9.
               8 Inflorescences narrow, the lower lateral branches only slightly exceeding the subtending leaves; leaves sparsely pubescent; [of the Southern Appalachians]
               8 Inflorescences broad, the lower lateral branches generally much longer than the subtending leaves; leaves moderately to densely pubescent; [collectively widespread].
                 9 Upper stem leaves lanceolate to elliptic, not much reduced relative to leaves lower on the stem
                 9 Upper stem leaves ovate, much reduced relative to leaves lower on the stem
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