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Key to Veronica

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1 Flowers in axillary racemes; upper bracteal leaves opposite throughout.
  2 Leaves and stems pubescent; [plants of mesic to dry habitats].
    3 Leaves cuneate at the base; leaves widest at the middle or beyond; pedicels shorter than the subtending bracts; [subgenus Veronica]
    3 Leaves cordate, truncate or rounded at the base; leaves widest toward the base; pedicels equaling or longer than the subtending bracts.
      4 Stem pubescence generally distributed; calyx shorter than the capsule; style 6-8 mm long; stems erect; [subgenus Pentasepalae]
      4 Stem pubescence restricted to 2 lines; calyx longer than the capsule; style 3-5 mm long; stems creeping or ascending; [subgenus Chamaedrys]
  2 Leaves and stems glabrous, or with fine glandular hairs in the inflorescence only; [plants of wetlands].
        5 Leaves (even the upper) short-petiolate; [subgenus Beccabunga].
          6 Leaves broadest toward the base, acute at the tip; style 2.5-3.5 mm long
          6 Leaves broadest near or above the middle, rounded at the tip; style 1.8-2.2 mm long
        5 Leaves (at least the middle and upper) sessile.
             7 Capsule flattened, conspicuously notched at the style and therefore appearing 2-lobed, wider than long; seeds 1.2-1.8 mm long; leaves (3-) 4-20× as long as wide; < 1 cm wide, tapering to the base and not clasping; [subgenus Veronica]
             7 Capsule turgid, slightly or not notched at the style, about as long as wide; seeds < 0.5 mm long; leaves 1.5-5 (-8)× as long as wide, mostly > 1 cm wide, clasping at the base; [subgenus Beccabunga].
               8 Racemes 20-65-flowered; pedicels 4-8 mm long; capsule ovoid to globose, not notched or barely so
               8 Racemes 5-25 (-35)-flowered; pedicels 3-6 mm long; capsule broadly obcordate, distinctly though slightly notched at the style
1 Flowers in terminal racemes or solitary and axillary, subtended by normally-sized leaves; upper bracteal leaves often alternate.
                 9 Bracts abruptly smaller than the foliage leaves, the flowers thus in well-developed terminal racemes or spikes; perennials from rhizomes.
                   10 Stems 3-10 dm tall; flowers in a crowded terminal spike; larger leaves > 4 cm long, sharply serrate; [subgenus Pseudolysimachium]
                   10 Stems 1-3 dm tall; flowers in loose racemes; larger leaves < 2.5 cm long, entire to weakly toothed; [subgenus Beccabunga].
                     11 Flowers bright blue; pedicels with some longer gland-tipped hairs; flowers usually < 12 per raceme
                     11 Flowers pale blue with darker blue lines; pedicels puberulent; flowers usually > 12 per raceme
                 9 Bracts gradually reduced in size upward, all of the flowers or at least those lower on the stem axillary in the axils of well-developed foliage leaves; annuals (except V. filiformis).
                       12 Pedicels 0-2 mm long; flowers in the axils of bracts, all or at least the upper of which are very different than foliage leaves.
                          13 Larger leaves 3-10× as long as wide, entire or dentate towards the apex; flowers white or very pale, ca. 2 mm across; stems usually glabrous (except V. peregrina var. xalapensis); [subgenus Beccabunga].
                            14 Stem pubescent with short, gland-tipped hairs; sepals and fruit glabrous or pubescent with short, gland-tipped hairs
                          13 Larger leaves 1-2.5× as long as wide, palmately lobed or toothed; flowers blue, 2-6 mm across; stems pubescent.
                              15 Leaves and lower bracts deeply 3-7-palmately lobed, the lobes cut > 2/3 of the way to the leaf base; [subgenus Pellidosperma]
                              15 Leaves and lower bracts crenate-serrate to 3-5-pinnately or subpalmately lobed (the lobes cut < ½ of the way to the leaf base); [subgenus Chamaedrys].
                                  17 Corolla 1.5-3 mm in diameter; style 0.2-0.6 mm long; stigma white
                       12 Pedicels 5-40 mm long; flowers in the axils of leaves similar in shape and size to foliage leaves (though the upper are sometimes somewhat smaller).
                                    18 Perennial, the stems rooting at the nodes the length of the stem; pedicels > 2× as long as the leaves; [subgenus Pocilla]
                                    18 Annual, the stems not rooting at the nodes (or at most only at the base of the plant); pedicels < 2× as long as the leaves.
                                       19 Leaves with usually > 7 small teeth or crenations; capsules either obviously compressed in ×-section, or nearly round (V. polita); [subgenus Pocilla].
                                         20 Lobes of the capsule with apices diverging at ca. 90 degrees, the apical notch of the capsule > 90°; corolla > 8 mm wide
                                         20 Lobes of the capsule with apices parallel or diverging at an acute angle, the apical notch of the capsule < 90°; corolla < 8 mm wide.
                                           21 Capsule with a mixture of short, arching, non-glandular hairs and longer, straight, gland-tipped hairs; corolla bright blue
                                       19 Leaves with 3-7 shallow lobes or large teeth; capsules nearly round in ×-section; [subgenus Cochlidiosperma].
                                             22 Calyx lobes ciliate-margined; corollas blue, violet, pink, or very pale pink (whitish).
                                               23 Pedicels 1-2× as long as the calyx; corollas dark blue with white center; outer surfaces of calyx lobes puberulent (rarely glabrous)
                                               23 Pedicels 2-4 (-6)× as long as the calyx; corollas medium to lighter blue (and with white center) or violet, pink, or very pale pink (whitish); outer surfaces calyx lobes glabrous or sparsely hairy.
                                                 24 Corollas bright blue with bright white center, (4-) 5-7 (-9) mm in diameter; styles (0.6-) 0.7-0.9 (-1.1) mm long; pedicels 2-3× as long as the calyx; pedicels eglandular-hairy in a single line
                                                 24 Corollas pale violet or pink to whitish, 4-5 (-6) mm in diameter; styles 0.2-0.7 mm long; pedicels 3-4 (-6)× as long as the calyx; pedicels densely eglandular-hairy around their circumference
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