This family includes 15-20 genera and 500-600 species, herbs, mostly north temperate. The Fumariaceae are often now subsumed into the Papaveraceae and separated as subfamilies (Lidén 1981, 1986; Lidén et al. 1997; Judd, Sanders, & Donoghue 1994), but the option remains (and is here followed) to recognize the two monophyletic clades as families: Papaveraceae s.s. and Fumariaceae. Peng et al. (2023) maintain a broad Papaveraceae, but their findings are also offer additional support for the recognition of four families (Pteridophyllaceae, Hypecoaceae, Fumariaceae, and Papaveraceae s.s.).
Ref: Hill (1992); Judd, Sanders, & Donoghue (1994); Lidén (1981); Lidén (1986); Lidén et al. (1997); Lidén In Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993); Peng et al. (2023); Pérez-Gutiérrez et al. (2012); Pérez-Gutiérrez et al. (2015); Stern (1997) In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997); Wang et al. (2009). Show full citations.